Anticancer activity of grape and grape skin extracts alone and combined with green tea infusions
Author: Dorothy M. Morré and D. James Morré
Grapes and grape extracts were compared for inhibition of a growth-related and cancer-specific form of cell surface NADH oxidase with protein disulfide-thiol interchange activity designated tNOX from human cervical carcinoma (HeLa) cells and growth of HeLa and mouse mammary 4T1 cells in culture and transplanted tumors in mice. Grapes and grape extracts of several varieties had activity. With an extracted grape preparation provided by the California Table Grape Commission, an active fraction was eluted with methanol from a Diaion HP-20 column after removal of inactive water-soluble materials. Grape skins were a much more potent source than either grape pulp, juice or seeds. Ethanol extracts of the ground freeze-dried pomace was an excellent source. The grape extracts interacted, often synergistically, with decaffeinated green tea extracts both in the inhibition of tNOX activity and in the inhibition of cancer cell growth. Intratumoral injections of a 25:1 mixture of a green tea extract plus ground freeze-dried pomace was nearly as effective as standard synergistic green tea–Capsicum mixtures in inhibiting growth of 4T1 mammary tumors in situ in mice.