Polyphenon E®, a standardized green tea extract, induces endoplasmic reticulum stress, leading to death of immortalized PNT1a cells by anoikis and tumorigenic PC3 by necroptosis
Author: Federica Rizzi, Valeria Naponelli, Alessandro Silva, Alice Modernelli, Ileana Ramazzina, Martina Bonacini, Saverio Tardito, Rita Gatti, Jacopo Uggeri and Saverio Bettuzzi
Increasing doses of Polyphenon E®, a standardized green tea extract, were given to PNT1a and PC3 prostate epithelial cells mimicking initial and advanced stages of prostate cancer (PCa), respectively. Cell death occurred in both cell lines, with PNT1a being more sensitive [half-maximal inhibitory concentration (IC50) = 35 μg/ml] than PC3 (IC50 = 145 μg/ml) to Polyphenon E®. Cell cycle arrest occurred at G0/G1 checkpoint for PNT1a, and G2/M for PC3 cells. Endoplasmic reticulum stress (ERS) and unfolded protein response (UPR) occurred in both cell lines, with each exhibiting different timing in response to Polyphenon E®. Autophagy was transiently activated in PNT1a cells within 12 h after treatment as a survival response to overcome ERS; then activation of caspases and cleavage of poly (ADP ribose) polymerase 1 occurred, committing cells to anoikis death. Polyphenon E® induced severe ERS in PC3 cells, causing a dramatic enlargement of the ER; persistent activation of UPR produced strong upregulation of GADD153/CHOP, a key protein of ERS-mediated cell death. Thereafter, GADD153/CHOP activated Puma, a BH3-only protein, committing cells to necroptosis, a programmed caspase-independent mechanism of cell death. Our results provide a foundation for the identification of novel targets and strategies aimed at sensitizing apoptosis-resistant cells to alternative death pathways.