Prevention of Hypertension, Cardiovascular Damage and Endothelial Dysfunction with Green Tea Extracts
Author: Michele Antonello and Domenico Montemurro and Massimo Bolognesi and Marco Di Pascoli and Anna Piva and Franco Grego and Daniele Sticchi and Luisa Giuliani and Spiridione Garbisa and Gian Paolo Rossi
Background: We investigated the effect of green tea extract (GTE) in arterial hypertension with high oxidative stress. Angiotensin (Ang) II induces endothelial dysfunction (ED) that is crucial for the development of atherosclerosis and hypertension. Methods: Male Sprague-Dawley rats, 13 weeks old, randomly assigned to drinking water with or without GTE (6 mg/mL) received a vehicle, a high (700 μg/kg/d) or a low (350 μg/kg/d) Ang II dose for 13 days, by osmotic mini-pumps. Blood pressure (BP) was measured with telemetry. After sacrifice, left ventricular (LV) mass index, small mesenteric artery media-to-lumen ratio, and concentration–response curves of phenylephrine-precontracted arteries to acetylcholine were evaluated. The effect of the superoxide dismutase (SOD-1) analog tempol on artery responses to acetylcholine was assessed. Oxidative stress was measured by plasma hydroperoxides and nitrotyrosine levels. The mRNA of heme oxygenase 1 (HO-1), NADPH oxidase endothelial p22phox subunit, and SOD-1 was also measured in the aorta. Results: Compared with vehicle high Ang II increased BP, LV mass index, media-to-lumen ratio, and hydroperoxide radicals. The GTE blunted these increases, prevented the increase in HO-1, p22phox, and SOD-1 mRNA in aorta caused by Ang II, and reduced them below baseline levels. Low Ang II dose increased BP values and plasma hydroperoxides only during the first week. Both Ang II doses shifted rightward the curves to acetylcholine; this was prevented in vivo by GTE and abolished in vitro by tempol. Conclusions: The GTE prevented hypertension and target organ damage induced by a high Ang II dose, likely by prevention or scavenging of superoxide anion generation.