Biphasic regulation of polymorphonuclear leukocyte spreading by polyphenolic compounds with pyrogallol moieties
Author: Soichiro Kori and Hideo Namiki and Kingo Suzuki
Green tea polyphenols have been reported to have anti-inflammatory activities, although the molecular mechanisms responsible for this effect remain unclear. In the present study, we examined the effect of green tea extract and a variety of polyphenolic compounds on spreading of peripheral blood polymorphonuclear leukocytes (PMNs) over fibrinogen-coated surfaces. Green tea extract exerted a biphasic effect on PMN spreading; it induced or suppressed spreading at low and high concentrations, respectively. We also found that pyrogallol-bearing compounds have spreading induction activity. Among the compounds tested, tannic acid (TA) had the strongest activity; the concentrations required for induction of maximal spreading were 2 µM for TA, 200 µM for (−)-epigallocatechin gallate, and 2000 µM for the other active compounds. Furthermore, TA was the only compound showing a biphasic effect similar to that of green tea extract; TA at 20 or 200 µM suppressed spreading. The spreading-stimulatory signal was still latent during PMN exposure to TA at concentrations that inhibited spreading, because the pre-exposed PMNs underwent spreading when plated after removal of free TA by centrifugation. The spreading-inhibitory effect of TA at high concentrations overcame the induction of spreading by other stimuli, including phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate, hydrogen peroxide, denatured fibrinogen surfaces, and naked plastic surfaces. These results suggest that TA as well as green tea extract is bi-functional, having pro-inflammatory and anti-inflammatory effects at low and high concentrations, respectively. Pharmacological use of TA may thus provide new strategies aimed at regulation of PMN spreading for control of inflammation.