Possible Loss of GABAergic Inhibition in Mice With Induced Adenomyosis and Treatment With Epigallocatechin-3-Gallate Attenuates the Loss With Improved Hyperalgesia
Author: Yumei Chen, Bo Zhu, Hongping Zhang, Ding Ding, Xishi Liu, Sun-Wei Guo
We have previously reported that induction of adenomyosis in mice results in progressive hyperalgesia, uterine hyperactivity, and elevated plasma corticosterone levels and that epigallocatechin-3-gallate (EGCG) treatment dose dependently suppressed myometrial infiltration and improved generalized hyperalgesia. In this study, we examined whether adenomyosis induced in mice results in the loss of GABAergic inhibition as manifested by the diminished glutamate decarboxylase (GAD) 65-expressing neurons in the brainstem nucleus raphe magnus (NRM) that could correlate with heightened hyperalgesia. We also evaluated whether EGCG treatment would reverse these changes and also improve the expression of some proteins known to be involved in adenomyosis. Adenomyosis was induced in 28 female ICR mice and additional 12 were used as blank controls, as reported previously. At the 16th week, all mice with induced adenomyosis received low- or high-dose EGCG treatment or untreated. Mice without adenomyosis received no treatment. After 3 weeks of treatment, their uterine horns and brains were harvested. The right uterine horn was used for immunohistochemistry analysis and for counting the number of macrophages infiltrating into the ectopic endometrium. The brainstem NRM sections were subjected to immunofluorescence staining for GAD65. We found that mice with induced adenomyosis had significantly diminished GAD65-expressing neurons, concomitant with heightened hyperalgesia. Treatment with EGCG increased these neurons in conjunction with improved hyperalgesia, reduced the expression of p-p65, cycloxygenase 2, oxytocin receptor, collagen I and IV, and transient receptor potential vanilloid type 1 in ectopic endometrium or myometrium, reduced the number of macrophages infiltrating into the ectopic endometrium while elevated the expression of progesterone receptor isoform B. Thus, adenomyosis-induced pain resembles neuropathic pain in that there is a remarkable central plasticity.