Risk factor for clear cell renal cell carcinoma in Chinese population: A case–control study
Author: Guoping Wang and Jianguo Hou and Liye Ma and Jiaxin Xie and Jianhua Yin and Danfeng Xu and Wenjun Chang and Xiaojie Tan and Tong Su and Hongwei Zhang and Guangwen Cao
Background: Risk factors for clear cell renal cell carcinoma (ccRCC) differ among populations and remain controversial. We carried out a hospital-based case–control study to examine the effects of health status, lifestyle, and some genetic polymorphisms on ccRCC risk in Chinese subjects. Methods: Between 2007 and 2009, 250 newly diagnosed, histologically confirmed ccRCC cases and 299 sex-, age-matched healthy controls provided complete information including consumption of tea and alcohol, smoking, occupational exposure, body mass index (BMI), hypertension, diabetes, and urolithiasis by face-to-face interview in Shanghai. Genetic polymorphisms of cytochrome P450 mono-oxygenase (CYP1A1: 6235T>C, 4889A>G, and 4887C>A), glutathione S-transferase (GSTP1: 342A>G), and N-acetyltransferase (NAT2: 481C>T, 590G>A, and 857G>A) were identified by PCR-RFLP and DNA sequencing. Adjusted odds ratio (AOR) and 95% confidence interval (CI) were derived through multivariate logistic regression. Results: Green tea intake (≥500 ml/d) was inversely associated with ccRCC risk, with an AOR of 0.34 (95% CI 0.21–0.55). BMI (≥25 kg/m2), hypertension, and urolithiasis were independently associated with an increased risk of ccRCC, with AOR (95% CI) of 2.10 (1.32–3.34), 2.49 (1.57–3.93), and 3.33 (1.12–9.89), respectively. No association was observed between smoking, alcohol consumption, or occupational exposure with ccRCC risk. The polymorphisms and their interactions with the environmental exposures were mostly not associated with ccRCC risk. Conclusion: BMI (≥25 kg/m2), hypertension, and urolithiasis are independently associated with an increased risk, whereas green tea intake (≥500 ml/d) is independently associated with a decreased risk of ccRCC. The polymorphisms of the xenobiotic-metabolizing enzymes are weakly associated with ccRCC risk in Chinese subjects.