Stability and anti-glycation properties of intermediate moisture apple products fortified with green tea
Author: Vera Lavelli and Mark Corey and William Kerr and Claudia Vantaggi
Intermediate moisture products made from blanched apple flesh and green tea extract (about 6 mg of monomeric flavan 3-ols added per g of dry apple) or blanched apple flesh (control) were produced, and their quality attributes were investigated over storage for two months at water activity (aw) levels of 0.55 and 0.75, at 30 °C. Products were evaluated for colour (L∗, a∗, and b∗ Hunter’s parameters), phytochemical contents (flavan 3-ols, chlorogenic acid, dihydrochalcones, ascorbic acid and total polyphenols), ferric reducing antioxidant potential, 2,2-diphenyl-1-(2,4,6-trinitrophenyl)hydrazyl radical-scavenging activity and ability to inhibit formation of fructose-induced advanced glycation end-products. During storage of the fortified and unfortified intermediate moisture apples, water availability was sufficient to support various chemical reactions involving phytochemicals, which degraded at different rates: ascorbic acid > flavan 3-ols > dihydrochalcones and chlorogenic acid. Colour variations occurred at slightly slower rates after green tea addition. In the intermediate moisture apple, antioxidant and anti-glycoxidative properties decreased at similar rates (half-life was about 80 d at aw of 0.75, 30 °C). In the green tea-fortified intermediate moisture apple, the antioxidant activity decreased at a slow rate (half-life was 165 d at aw of 0.75, 30 °C) and the anti-glycoxidative properties did not change, indicating that flavan 3-ol degradation involved the formation of derivatives that retained the properties of their parent compounds. Since these properties are linked to oxidative- and advanced glycation end-product-related diseases, these results suggest that green tea fortification of intermediate moisture apple products could be a valuable means of product innovation, to address consumers’ nutritional needs.