heart-health

According to Harvard Medical School, “lowering your risk of cardiovascular disease may be as easy as drinking green tea. Studies suggest this light, aromatic tea may lower LDL cholesterol and triglycerides, which may be responsible for the tea's association with reduced risk of death from heart disease and stroke.”
According to Harvard Medical School, “lowering your risk of cardiovascular disease may be as easy as drinking green tea. Studies suggest this light, aromatic tea may lower LDL cholesterol and triglycerides, which may be responsible for the tea's association with reduced risk of death from heart disease and stroke.”

Recent Research Papers on
heart-health

Does tea prevent cancer? Evidence from laboratory and human intervention studies

Author: Joshua D Lambert

Tea (Camellia sinensis) is a widely consumed beverage and has been extensively studied for its cancer-preventive activity. Both the polyphenolic constituents as well as the caffeine in tea have been implicated as potential cancer-preventive compounds; the relative importance seems to depend on the cancer type. Green tea and the green tea catechin have been shown to inhibit tumorigenesis at a number of organ sites and to be effective when administered either during the initiation or postinitiation phases of carcinogenesis. Black tea, although not as well studied as green tea, has also shown cancer-preventive effects in laboratory models. A number of potential mechanisms have been proposed to account for the cancer-preventive effects of tea, including modulation of phase II metabolism, alterations in redox environment, inhibition of growth factor signaling, and others. In addition to the laboratory studies, there is a growing body of human intervention studies suggesting that tea can slow cancer progression and modify biomarkers relevant to carcinogenesis. Although available data are promising, many questions remain with regard to the dose-response relations of tea constituents in various models, the primary mechanisms of action, and the potential for combination chemoprevention strategies that involve tea as well as other dietary or pharmaceutical agents. The present review examines the available data from laboratory animal and human intervention studies on tea and cancer prevention. These data were evaluated, and areas for further research are identified.

 

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Human studies on the absorption, distribution, metabolism, and excretion of tea polyphenols

Author: Michael N Clifford, Justin JJ van der Hooft, and Alan Crozier

Recent research on the bioavailability of flavan-3-ols after ingestion of green tea by humans is reviewed. Glucuronide, sulfate, and methyl metabolites of (epi)catechin and (epi)gallocatechin glucuronide reach peak nanomolar per liter plasma concentrations 1.6-2.3 h after intake, indicating absorption in the small intestine. The concentrations then decline, and only trace amounts remain 8 h after ingestion. Urinary excretion of metabolites over a 24-h period after green tea consumption corresponded to 28.5% of the ingested (epi)catechin and 11.4% of (epi)gallocatechin, suggesting higher absorption than that of most other flavonoids. The fate of (-)-epicatechin-3-O-gallate, the main flavan-3-ol in green tea, is unclear because it appears unmetabolized in low concentrations in plasma but is not excreted in urine. Possible enterohepatic recirculation of flavan-3-ols is discussed along with the impact of dose and other food components on flavan-3-ol bioavailability. Approximately two-thirds of the ingested flavan-3-ols pass from the small to the large intestine where the action of the microbiota results in their conversion to C-6-C-5 phenylvalerolactones and phenylvaleric acids, which undergo side-chain shortening to produce C-6-C-1 phenolic and aromatic acids that enter the bloodstream and are excreted in urine in amounts equivalent to 36% of flavan-3-ol intake. Some of these colon-derived catabolites may have a role in vivo in the potential protective effects of tea consumption. Although black tea, which contains theaflavins and thearubigins, is widely consumed in the Western world, there is surprisingly little research on the absorption and metabolism of these compounds after ingestion and their potential impact on health.

 

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Coffee and Tea Consumption Are Inversely Associated with Mortality in a Multiethnic Urban Population

Author: Hannah Gardener, Tatjana Rundek, Clinton B. Wright, Mitchell S. V. Elkind, and Ralph L. Sacco

Coffee and tea are commonly consumed beverages. Inverse associations with mortality have been suggested for coffee and tea, but the relationships with cause-specific mortality are not well understood. We examined regular and decaffeinated coffee and tea in relation to mortality due to all causes, vascular, nonvascular, and cancer in the multi-ethnic, prospective, population-based Northern Manhattan Study. The study population included 2461 participants with diet data who were free of stroke, myocardial infarction, and cancer at baseline (mean age 68.30 ± 10.23 y, 36% men, 19% white, 23% black, 56% Hispanic). During a mean follow-up of 11 y, we examined the associations between coffee and tea consumption, assessed by food frequency questionnaire, and 863 deaths (342 vascular related and 444 nonvascular including 160 cancer deaths) using multivariable-adjusted Cox models. Coffee consumption was inversely associated with all-cause mortality [for each additional cup/d, HR = 0.93 (95% CI: 0.88, 0.99); P = 0.02]. Caffeinated coffee was inversely associated with all-cause mortality, driven by a strong protection among those who drank ≥4 cups/d. An inverse dose-response relationship between tea and all-cause mortality was suggested [for each additional cup/d, HR = 0.91 (95% CI: 0.84, 0.99); P = 0.01]. Coffee consumption ≥4/d was protective against nonvascular death [vs. <1/mo, HR = 0.57 (95% CI: 0.33, 0.97)] and tea consumption ≥2/d was protective against nonvascular death [HR = 0.63 (95% CI: 0.41, 0.95)] and cancer [HR = 0.33 (95% CI: 0.14, 0.80)]. There was a strong inverse association between coffee and vascular-related mortality among Hispanics only. Further study is needed, including investigation into the mechanisms and compounds in coffee and tea responsible for the inverse associations with mortality. The differential relationship between coffee and vascular death across race/ethnicity underscores the need for research in similar multi-ethnic cohorts including Hispanics.

 

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Effect of green tea supplementation on blood pressure among overweight and obese adults: a protocol for a systematic review

Author: Guowei Li, Yuan Zhang, Lawrence Mbuagbaw, Anne Holbrook, Mitchell A H Levine, Lehana Thabane

Introduction Emerging randomised controlled trials (RCTs) exploring the effect of green tea (GT) supplementation or GT extract (GTE) on blood pressure (BP) among overweight and obese adults yielded inconclusive results. We aim to conduct a systematic review to summarise the evidence of RCTs until now, to clarify the efficacy of GT supplementation or GTE in BP in overweight and obese populations. Methods and analysis The Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials, MEDLINE, EMBASE and ClinicalTrials.gov will be searched to retrieve potential RCTs. Unpublished studies will be identified by searching the abstract books or websites of the three major conference proceedings: the International Society of Hypertension, the Nutrition & Health Conference and the World Congress of Nutrition and Health. A random-effects meta-analysis will be performed to pool the mean difference for the change in BP from baseline (ie, postintervention BP minus baseline BP) between intervention groups and placebo groups of the included studies, presenting the pooled results with 95% CIs. Subgroups analyses will be conducted according to different doses of GT or GTE, trial duration, geographic regions, overweight versus obese participants, and participants with versus without change in body weight after intervention. Sensitivity analysis will be performed by excluding studies classified as having a high risk of bias, applying a fixed-effects model, using the postintervention BP for analyses and excluding trials with non-study cointerventions. Ethics and dissemination This systematic review will be published in a peer-reviewed journal. It will be disseminated electronically and in print. Summarising the RCT evidence to clarify the efficacy in BP among overweight and obese adults will aid in making the dietary recommendation of GT and improving the clinical management of hypertension.

 

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Coffee, Tea, and Cocoa and Risk of Stroke

Author: Susanna C. Larsson

Current evidence from experimental studies in animals and humans along with findings from prospective studies indicates beneficial effects of green and black tea as well as chocolate on cardiovascular health, and that tea and chocolate consumption may reduce the risk of stroke. The strongest evidence exists for beneficial effects of tea and cocoa on endothelial function, total and LDL cholesterol (tea only), and insulin sensitivity (cocoa only). The majority of prospective studies have reported a weak inverse association between moderate consumption of coffee and risk of stroke. However, there are yet no clear biological mechanisms whereby coffee might provide cardiovascular health benefits. Awaiting the results from further long-term RCTs and prospective studies, moderate consumption of filtered coffee, tea, and dark chocolate seems prudent.

 

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A combination of eicosapentaenoic acid-free fatty acid, epigallocatechin-3-gallate and proanthocyanidins has a strong effect on mTOR signaling in colorectal cancer cells

Author: Leonarda D’Angelo, Giulia Piazzi, Annalisa Pacilli, Anna Prossomariti, Chiara Fazio, Lorenzo Montanaro, Giulia Graziani, Vincenzo Fogliano, Alessandra Munarini, Francesca Bianchi, Andrea Belluzzi, Franco Bazzoli and Luigi Ricciardiello

Colorectal cancer (CRC) is one of the major causes of cancer death worldwide. The development of novel anti-CRC agents able to overcome drug resistance and/or off-target toxicity is of pivotal importance. The mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) plays a critical role in CRC, regulating protein translation and controlling cell growth, proliferation, metabolism and survival. The aim of this study was to explore the effect of a combination of three natural compounds, eicosapentaenoic acid-free fatty acid (EPA-FFA), epigallocatechin-3-gallate (EGCG) and proanthocyanidins (grape seed [GS] extract) at low cytotoxic concentrations on CRC cells and test their activity on mTOR and translational regulation. The CRC cell lines HCT116 and SW480 were treated for 24h with combinations of EPA-FFA (0-150 µM), EGCG (0-175 µM) and GS extract (0-15 µM) to evaluate the effect on cell viability. The low cytotoxic combination of EPA-FFA 150 µM, EGCG 175 µM and GS extract 15 µM completely inhibited the mTOR signaling in HCT116 and SW480 cells, reaching an effect stronger than or comparable to that of the mTOR inhibitor Rapamycin in HCT116 or SW480 cells, respectively. Moreover, the treatment led to changes of protein translation of ribosomal proteins, c-Myc and cyclin D1. In addition, we found a reduction of clonal capability in both cell lines, with block of cell cycle in G0G1 and induction of apoptosis. Our data suggest that the low cytotoxic combination of EPA-FFA, EGCG and GS extract, tested for the first time here, inhibits mTOR signaling and thus could be considered for CRC treatment.

 

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Green Tea, Black Tea, and Oolong Tea Polyphenols Reduce Visceral Fat and Inflammation in Mice Fed High-Fat, High-Sucrose Obesogenic Diets

Author: David Heber, Yanjun Zhang, Jieping Yang, Janice E. Ma, Susanne M. Henning, and Zhaoping Li

Green tea (GT) and caffeine in combination were shown to increase energy expenditure and fat oxidation, but less is known about the effects of black tea (BT) and oolong tea (OT). This study investigated whether decaffeinated polyphenol extracts from GT, BT, and OT decrease body fat and inflammation in male C57BL/6J mice fed high-fat/high-sucrose [HF/HS (32% energy from fat, 25% energy from sucrose)] diets. Mice were fed either an HF/HS diet with 0.25% of polyphenol from GT, OT, or BT or a low-fat/high-sucrose [LF/HS (10.6% energy from fat, 25% energy from sucrose)] diet for 20 wk. Monomeric tea polyphenols were found in the liver and adipose tissue of mice fed the HF/HS diet with GT polyphenols (GTPs) and OT polyphenols (OTPs) but not BT polyphenols (BTPs). Treatment with GTPs, OTPs, BTPs, and an LF/HS diet led to significantly lower body weight, total visceral fat volume by MRI, and liver lipid weight compared with mice in the HF/HS control group. Only GTPs reduced food intake significantly by ∼10%. GTP, BTP, and LF/HS-diet treatments significantly reduced serum monocyte chemotactic protein-1 (MCP-1) compared with HF/HS controls. In mesenteric fat, monocyte chemotactic protein-1 (Mcp1) gene expression was significantly decreased by treatment with GTPs, BTPs, OTPs, and an LF/HS diet and in liver tissue by GTP and BTP treatments. Mcp1 gene expression in epididymal fat was significantly decreased by the BTP and LF/HS diet interventions. In epididymal fat, consistent with an anti-inflammatory effect, adiponectin gene expression was significantly increased by GTPs and OTPs. Angiogenesis during adipose tissue expansion is anti-inflammatory by maintaining adipocyte perfusion. We observed significantly increased gene expression of vascular endothelial growth factor A by GTPs and vascular endothelial growth factor receptor 2 by BTPs and the LF/HS diet and a decrease in pigment epithelium-derived factor gene expression by OTPs and BTPs. In summary, all 3 tea polyphenol extracts induced weight loss and anti-inflammatory and angiogenic effects, although the tissue content of polyphenols differed significantly.

 

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Resveratrol and EGCG bind directly and distinctively to miR-33a and miR-122 and modulate divergently their levels in hepatic cells

Author: Laura Baselga-Escudero, Cinta Blade, Aleix Ribas-Latre, Ester Casanova, Manuel Suárez, Josep Lluís Torres, M. Josepa Salvadó, Lluis Arola and Anna Arola-Arnal

Modulation of miR-33 and miR-122 has been proposed to be a promising strategy to treat dyslipidemia and insulin resistance associated with obesity and metabolic syndrome. Interestingly, specific polyphenols reduce the levels of these mi(cro)RNAs. The aim of this study was to elucidate the effect of polyphenols of different chemical structure on miR-33a and miR-122 expression and to determine whether direct binding of the polyphenol to the mature microRNAs (miRNAs) is a plausible mechanism of modulation. The effect of two grape proanthocyanidin extracts, their fractions and pure polyphenol compounds on miRNA expression was evaluated using hepatic cell lines. Results demonstrated that the effect on miRNA expression depended on the polyphenol chemical structure. Moreover, miR-33a was repressed independently of its host-gene SREBP2. Therefore, the ability of resveratrol and epigallocatechin gallate to bind miR-33a and miR-122 was measured using 1H NMR spectroscopy. Both compounds bound miR-33a and miR-122 and differently. Interestingly, the nature of the binding of these compounds to the miRNAs was consistent with their effects on cell miRNA levels. Therefore, the specific and direct binding of polyphenols to miRNAs emerges as a new posttranscriptional mechanism by which polyphenols could modulate metabolism.

 

 

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Polyphenols and the Human Brain: Plant “Secondary Metabolite” Ecologic Roles and Endogenous Signaling Functions Drive Benefits

Author: David O. Kennedy

Flavonoids and other polyphenols are ubiquitous plant chemicals that fulfill a range of ecologic roles for their home plant, including protection from a range of biotic and abiotic stressors and a pivotal role in the management of pathogenic and symbiotic soil bacteria and fungi. They form a natural part of the human diet, and evidence suggests that their consumption is associated with the beneficial modulation of a number of health-related variables, including those related to cardiovascular and brain function. Over recent years, the consensus as to the mechanisms responsible for these effects in humans has shifted away from polyphenols having direct antioxidant effects and toward their modulation of cellular signal transduction pathways. To date, little consideration has been given to the question of why, rather than how, these plant-derived chemicals might exert these effects. Therefore, this review summarizes the evidence suggesting that polyphenols beneficially affect human brain function and describes the current mechanistic hypotheses explaining these effects. It then goes on to describe the ecologic roles and potential endogenous signaling functions that these ubiquitous phytochemicals play within their home plant and discusses whether these functions drive their beneficial effects in humans via a process of “cross-kingdom” signaling predicated on the many conserved similarities in plant, microbial, and human cellular signal transduction pathways.

 

 

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Effect of tea on blood pressure for secondary prevention of cardiovascular disease: a systematic review and meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials

Author: James Yarmolinsky , Giorgia Gon , Phil Edwards

Context: Tea has been proposed as an antihypertensive agent for individuals with elevated blood pressure, yet the evidence for this has not been systematically reviewed to date. Objective: The aim of this review was to evaluate the effects of tea on blood pressure in individuals within the prehypertensive and hypertensive blood pressure ranges. Data Sources: The CENTRAL, PubMed, Embase, and Web of Science databases were searched for all relevant studies published from 1946 to September 27, 2013. Study Selection: The selection criteria included randomized controlled trials of adults whose blood pressure was within hypertensive or prehypertensive ranges and in which the applied intervention was green or black tea; controls consisting of placebo, minimal tea intervention, or no intervention; and a follow-up period of at least 2 months. Data Extraction: Two reviewers independently extracted data on participants, interventions, comparators, outcomes, and study design. Mean differences (MDs) and 95% confidence intervals (95%CIs) were pooled to generate summary effect estimates. Results: Meta-analyses of 10 trials (834 participants) showed statistically significant reductions in systolic blood pressure (MD −2.36 mmHg, 95%CI −4.20 to −0.52) and diastolic blood pressure (MD −1.77 mmHg, 95%CI −3.03 to −0.52) with tea consumption. Conclusions: Consumption of green or black tea can reduce blood pressure in individuals within prehypertensive and hypertensive ranges, although further investigation with studies of longer duration and stronger methodological quality is warranted to confirm these findings.

 

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Other Popular Research Topics

Cognitive Function

Cognitive Function

Matcha consumption leads to much higher intake of green tea phytochemicals compared to regular green tea. Previous research on caffeine, L-theanine, and epigallocatechin gallate (EGCG) repeatedly demonstrated benefits on cognitive performance.

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Mental Health

Mental Health

Matcha contains an amino acid called L-theanine, which has been shown to reduce physiological and psychological stresses. L-theanine also improves cognition and mood in a synergistic manner with caffeine, and promotes alpha wave production in the brain

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Cancer Prevention

Cancer Prevention

Matcha/green tea has for many centuries been regarded as an essential part of good health in Japan and China. Many believe it can help reduce the risk of cancer, and a growing body of evidence backs this up.

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Immunity

Immunity

A recent study in the journal Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences concluded that drinking matcha daily greatly enhanced the overall response of the immune system. The exceedingly high levels of antioxidants in matcha mainly take the form of polyphenols, catechins, and flavonoids, each of which aids the body’s defense in its daily struggles against free radicals that come from the pollution in your air, water and foods.

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