Fraud Blocker

immunity

A recent study in the journal Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences concluded that drinking matcha daily greatly enhanced the overall response of the immune system. The exceedingly high levels of antioxidants in matcha mainly take the form of polyphenols, catechins, and flavonoids, each of which aids the body’s defense in its daily struggles against free radicals that come from the pollution in your air, water and foods.
A recent study in the journal Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences concluded that drinking matcha daily greatly enhanced the overall response of the immune system. The exceedingly high levels of antioxidants in matcha mainly take the form of polyphenols, catechins, and flavonoids, each of which aids the body’s defense in its daily struggles against free radicals that come from the pollution in your air, water and foods.

Recent Research Papers on
immunity

Epigallocatechin-3-gallate diminishes cytokine-stimulated Cyr61 expression in human osteoblastic cells: a therapeutic potential for arthritis

Author: Ping-Han Wu, Sze-Kwan Lin, Bor-Shiunn Lee, Sang-Heng Kok, Jyh-Horng Wang, Kuo-Liang Hou, Hsiang Yang, Eddie Hsiang-Hua Lai, Juo-Song Wang and Chi-Yuan Hong

Objective. To assess the effects of epigallocatechin-3-gallate (EGCG) on cytokine-induced Cyr61 synthesis in human osteoblastic cells and the associated signalling pathways. The therapeutic effect of EGCG on CIA in rats was also studied. Methods. The expression of Cyr61 and NF-κB pathway molecules was examined by western blotting. CCL2 expression was assessed by northern blotting and ELISA. Interaction between NF-κB and Cyr61 promoter was evaluated by electrophoretic mobility shift assay. In rat CIA, osteoblastic expression of Cyr61 was examined by immunohistochemistry and disease progression was assessed by clinical, radiographic and histological examinations. Results. EGCG inhibited Cyr61 expression stimulated by cytokines in primary human osteoblasts and human osteoblastic cell line U2OS. In U2OS, oncostatin M (OSM) induced IκB-α degradation through the mTOR/rictor/Akt pathway, and EGCG attenuated the action. Electrophoretic mobility shift assay revealed that the OSM-enhanced NF-κB/DNA binding was reduced by EGCG, possibly through abrogating nucleus localization of p65 and p50. Cyr61 enhanced OSM-induced expression of CCL2. Moreover, EGCG diminished OSM-stimulated CCL2 expression at least partially via suppressing Cyr61 induction. Co-distribution of CD68+ macrophages and Cyr61+ osteoblasts in osteolytic areas was obvious in the CIA model. Clinical, radiographic and immunohistochemical analyses revealed that administration of EGCG markedly diminished the severity of CIA, macrophage infiltration, and the number of Cyr61-synthesizing osteoblasts. Conclusion. By modulating the mTOR/rictor/Akt/NF-κB pathway, EGCG attenuated Cyr61 production in osteoblastic cells and in turn diminished macrophage chemotaxis. Our data support the therapeutic potential of EGCG on arthritis.

 

Get the whole article here

Green tea epigallocatechin-3-gallate attenuates Porphyromonas gingivalis-induced atherosclerosis

Author: Yu Cai , Tomoko Kurita-Ochiai , Tomomi Hashizume , Masafumi Yamamoto

The purpose of this study was to determine whether epigallocatechin-3-gallate (EGCG) ameliorates Porphyromonas gingivalis -induced atherosclerosis. EGCG is a polyphenol extract from green tea with health benefits and P. gingivalis is shown here to accelerate atheroma formation in a murine model. Apolipoprotein E knockout mice were administered EGCG or vehicle in drinking water; they were then fed high-fat diets and injected with P. gingivalis three times a week for 3 weeks. Mice were then killed at 15 weeks. Atherosclerotic plaques in the proximal aorta were determined by Oil Red O staining. Atherosclerosis risk factors in serum, liver or aorta were analysed using cytokine antibody arrays, enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay and real-time PCR. Atherosclerotic lesion areas of the aortic sinus caused by P. gingivalis infection decreased in EGCG-treated groups, wherein EGCG reduced the production of C-reactive protein, monocyte chemoattractant protein-1, and oxidized low-density lipoprotein (LDL), and slightly lowered LDL/very LDL cholesterol in P. gingivalis -challenged mice serum. Furthermore, the increase in CCL2, MMP-9, ICAM-1, HSP60, CD44, LOX-1, NOX-4, p22phox and iNOS gene expression levels in the aorta of P. gingivalis -challenged mice were reduced in EGCG-treated mice. However, HO-1 mRNA levels were elevated by EGCG treatment, suggesting that EGCG, as a natural substance, inhibits P. gingivalis -induced atherosclerosis through anti-inflammatory and antioxidative effects.

 

Get the whole article here

Epigallocatechin-3-Gallate Inhibits Expression of Receptors for T Cell Regulatory Cytokines and Their Downstream Signaling in Mouse CD4+ T Cells

Author: Junpeng Wang, Munkyong Pae, Simin Nikbin Meydani and Dayong Wu

We previously showed a suppressive effect of epigallocatechin-3-gallate (EGCG) on T cell cycling and expansion as well as a paradoxical effect on IL-2 levels (upregulating) and IL-2 receptor (IL-2R)α expression (downregulating). Thus, in the current study, we tested the hypothesis that EGCG affects T cell responses via impairing the IL-2/IL-2R signaling. We found that EGCG inhibited anti-CD3/CD28-induced proliferation of naïve CD4+ T cells from C57BL/6 mice. EGCG increased accumulation of IL-2 but inhibited expression of IL-2R, including all its subunits [IL-2Rα, IL-2/IL-15Rβ, and common γ chain (γc)]. Using phosphorylation of STAT5 as a marker, we further found that EGCG suppressed IL-2R downstream signaling. Because IL-2R subunits IL-2/IL-15Rβ- and γc are shared with IL-15R and γc is shared with IL-7R, we suspected that EGCG might also influence the signaling of IL-15 and IL-7, the two key regulators in maintaining T cell homeostasis. Results showed that EGCG suppressed IL-15 and IL-7 signaling; further, EGCG not only inhibited the subunits in IL-15R and IL-7R shared with IL-2R, but also affected their proprietary α chains in a manner that aligns with an impaired signaling. Although IL-2, IL-15, and IL-7 have separate and distinctive roles in regulating T cells, all of them are critical for T cell survival, expansion, and differentiation. Thus, these findings indicate an involvement of T cell growth cytokines in EGCG-induced T cell suppression through downregulated expression of their receptors and downstream signaling. This implies a potential application in controlling dysregulated T cell functions such as those observed in autoimmune and inflammatory disorders.

 

Get the whole article here

Total and Specific Polyphenol Intakes in Midlife Are Associated with Cognitive Function Measured 13 Years Later

Author: Emmanuelle Kesse-Guyot, Léopold Fezeu, Valentina A. Andreeva, Mathilde Touvier, Augustin Scalbert, Serge Hercberg and Pilar Galan

Polyphenols, and in particular flavonoids, are omnipresent plant-food components displaying biochemical properties possibly beneficial to brain health. We sought to evaluate the long-term association between total and class-specific polyphenol intake and cognitive performance. Polyphenol intake was estimated using the Phenol-Explorer database applied to at least six 24-h dietary records collected in 1994-1996 as part of the SU.VI.MAX (Supplémentation en Vitamines et Minéraux Antioxydants) study. The cognitive performance of 2574 middle-aged adults participating in the cohort was assessed in 2007-2009 using the following four neuropsychological tests: phonemic and semantic fluency, the RI-48 Cued Recall test, the Trail Making test, and Forward and Backward Digit Span. Inter-correlations among the test scores were estimated with principal component analysis. Associations between polyphenol intake and cognition were assessed by multivariate linear regression and ANCOVA. In multivariate models, high total polyphenol intake was associated with better language and verbal memory (P = 0.01) but not with executive functioning (P = 0.09). More specifically, intake of catechins (P = 0.001), theaflavins (P = 0.002), flavonols (P = 0.01), and hydroxybenzoic acids (P = 0.0004) was positively associated with language and verbal memory, especially with episodic memory assessed by the RI-48 test. In contrast, negative associations between scores on executive functioning and intake of dihydrochalcones (P = 0.01), catechins (P = 0.01), proanthocyanidins (P = 0.01), and flavonols (P = 0.01) were detected. High intake of specific polyphenols, including flavonoids and phenolic acids, may help to preserve verbal memory, which is a salient vulnerable domain in pathological brain aging. Further investigations are needed to clarify the observed negative associations regarding executive functioning.

 

Get the whole article here

Effect of epigallocatechin gallate supplementation in schizophrenia and bipolar disorder: an 8-week, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled study

Author: Jennifer M. Loftis, Clare J. Wilhelm, Marilyn Huckans

Objectives: Strategies that focus on the reduction of oxidative stress and inflammation may have therapeutic benefit for the treatment of schizophrenia. This clinical trial sought to determine, in a double-blind study, whether epigallocatechin gallate (EGCG), a green tea extract, is a useful adjunct to maintenance antipsychotic medication. Methods: Adults with schizophrenia, schizoaffective disorder or bipolar disorder who were maintained on antipsychotic and other psychotropic medications were randomized to supplemental EGCG or placebo. Study participants completed clinical assessments and blood draws to evaluate supplemental treatment effects on psychiatric symptoms and plasma inflammatory markers. Results: A total of 34 participants (17 EGCG, 17 placebo) were randomized and 25 participants (14 EGCG, 11 placebo) completed the study. Both treatment groups showed significant reductions in psychotic, depressive and anxiety symptoms from baseline to end of treatment. However, EGCG did not significantly affect psychiatric symptoms or inflammatory markers, as compared with placebo. Adverse effects were mild and comparable between groups. Conclusion: There was no signal for a therapeutic effect of the green tea extract EGCG on psychiatric symptoms in this placebo-controlled pilot study.

 

Get the whole article here

 

Tea and bone health: steps forward in translational nutrition

Author: Chwan-Li Shen, Ming-Chien Chyu, and Jia-Sheng Wang

Osteoporosis is a major health problem in the aging population worldwide. Cross-sectional and retrospective evidence indicates that tea consumption may be a promising approach in mitigating bone loss and in reducing risk of osteoporotic fractures among older adults. Tea polyphenols enhance osteoblastogenesis and suppress osteoclastogenesis in vitro. Animal studies reveal that intake of tea polyphenols have pronounced positive effects on bone as shown by higher bone mass and trabecular bone volume, number, and thickness and lower trabecular separation via increasing bone formation and inhibition of bone resorption, resulting in greater bone strength. These osteoprotective effects appear to be mediated through antioxidant or antiinflammatory pathways along with their downstream signaling mechanisms. A short-term clinical trial of green tea polyphenols has translated the findings from ovariectomized animals to postmenopausal osteopenic women through evaluation of bioavailability, safety, bone turnover markers, muscle strength, and quality of life. For future studies, preclinical animal studies to optimize the dose of tea polyphenols for maximum osteoprotective efficacy and a follow-up short-term dose-response trial in postmenopausal osteopenic women are necessary to inform the design of randomized controlled studies in at-risk populations. Advanced imaging technology should also contribute to determining the effective dose of tea polyphenols in achieving better bone mass, microarchitecture integrity, and bone strength, which are critical steps for translating the putative benefit of tea consumption in osteoporosis management into clinical practice and dietary guidelines.

 

Get the whole article here

(-)-Epigallocatechin-3-gallate inhibition of Epstein–Barr virus spontaneous lytic infection involves ERK1/2 and PI3-K/Akt signaling in EBV-positive cells

Author: Sufang Liu, Hongde Li, Lin Chen, Lifang Yang, Lili Li, Yongguan Tao, Wei Li, Zijian Li, Haidan Liu, Min Tang, Ann M. Bode, Zigang Dong and Ya Cao

Epstein–Barr virus (EBV) reactivation into the lytic cycle plays certain roles in the development of EBV-associated diseases, including nasopharyngeal carcinoma and lymphoma. In this study, we investigated the effects of the tea polyphenol (-)-epigallocatechin-3-gallate (EGCG) on EBV spontaneous lytic infection and the mechanism(s) involved in EBV-positive cells. We found that EGCG could effectively inhibit the constitutive lytic infection of EBV at the DNA, gene transcription and protein levels by decreasing the phosphorylation and activation of extracellular signal-regulated kinase 1/2 (ERK1/2) and Akt. By using cellular signaling pathway-specific inhibitors, we also explored the signaling mechanisms underlying the inhibitory effects of EGCG on EBV spontaneous lytic infection in cell models. Results show that specific inhibitors of Mitogen-Activated Protein Kinase Kinase (MEK) (PD98059) and phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase [PI3-K (LY294002)] markedly downregulated gene transcription and expression of BZLF1 and BMRF1 indicating that the MEK/ERK1/2 and PI3-K/Akt pathways are involved in the EBV spontaneous lytic cycle cascade. Therefore, one of the mechanisms by which EGCG inhibits EBV spontaneous lytic infection appears to involve the suppression of the activation of MEK/ERK1/2 and PI3-K/Akt signaling.

 

Get the whole article here

(−)-Epicatechin Gallate (ECG) Stimulates Osteoblast Differentiation via Runt-related Transcription Factor 2 (RUNX2) and Transcriptional Coactivator with PDZ-binding Motif (TAZ)-mediated Transcriptional Activation

Author: Mi Ran Byun, Mi Kyung Sung, A Rum Kim, Cham Han Lee, Eun Jung Jang, Mi Gyeong Jeong, Minsoo Noh, Eun Sook Hwang and Jeong-Ho Hong

Osteoporosis is a degenerative bone disease characterized by low bone mass and is caused by an imbalance between osteoblastic bone formation and osteoclastic bone resorption. It is known that the bioactive compounds present in green tea increase osteogenic activity and decrease the risk of fracture by improving bone mineral density. However, the detailed mechanism underlying these beneficial effects has yet to be elucidated. In this study, we investigated the osteogenic effect of (−)-epicatechin gallate (ECG), a major bioactive compound found in green tea. We found that ECG effectively stimulates osteoblast differentiation, indicated by the increased expression of osteoblastic marker genes. Up-regulation of osteoblast marker genes is mediated by increased expression and interaction of the transcriptional coactivator with PDZ-binding motif (TAZ) and Runt-related transcription factor 2 (RUNX2). ECG facilitates nuclear localization of TAZ through PP1A. PP1A is essential for osteoblast differentiation because inhibition of PP1A activity was shown to suppress ECG-mediated osteogenic differentiation. Taken together, the results showed that ECG stimulates osteoblast differentiation through the activation of TAZ and RUNX2, revealing a novel mechanism for green tea-stimulated osteoblast differentiation.

 

Get the whole article here

Green Tea, Black Tea, and Oolong Tea Polyphenols Reduce Visceral Fat and Inflammation in Mice Fed High-Fat, High-Sucrose Obesogenic Diets

Author: David Heber, Yanjun Zhang, Jieping Yang, Janice E. Ma, Susanne M. Henning, and Zhaoping Li

Green tea (GT) and caffeine in combination were shown to increase energy expenditure and fat oxidation, but less is known about the effects of black tea (BT) and oolong tea (OT). This study investigated whether decaffeinated polyphenol extracts from GT, BT, and OT decrease body fat and inflammation in male C57BL/6J mice fed high-fat/high-sucrose [HF/HS (32% energy from fat, 25% energy from sucrose)] diets. Mice were fed either an HF/HS diet with 0.25% of polyphenol from GT, OT, or BT or a low-fat/high-sucrose [LF/HS (10.6% energy from fat, 25% energy from sucrose)] diet for 20 wk. Monomeric tea polyphenols were found in the liver and adipose tissue of mice fed the HF/HS diet with GT polyphenols (GTPs) and OT polyphenols (OTPs) but not BT polyphenols (BTPs). Treatment with GTPs, OTPs, BTPs, and an LF/HS diet led to significantly lower body weight, total visceral fat volume by MRI, and liver lipid weight compared with mice in the HF/HS control group. Only GTPs reduced food intake significantly by ∼10%. GTP, BTP, and LF/HS-diet treatments significantly reduced serum monocyte chemotactic protein-1 (MCP-1) compared with HF/HS controls. In mesenteric fat, monocyte chemotactic protein-1 (Mcp1) gene expression was significantly decreased by treatment with GTPs, BTPs, OTPs, and an LF/HS diet and in liver tissue by GTP and BTP treatments. Mcp1 gene expression in epididymal fat was significantly decreased by the BTP and LF/HS diet interventions. In epididymal fat, consistent with an anti-inflammatory effect, adiponectin gene expression was significantly increased by GTPs and OTPs. Angiogenesis during adipose tissue expansion is anti-inflammatory by maintaining adipocyte perfusion. We observed significantly increased gene expression of vascular endothelial growth factor A by GTPs and vascular endothelial growth factor receptor 2 by BTPs and the LF/HS diet and a decrease in pigment epithelium-derived factor gene expression by OTPs and BTPs. In summary, all 3 tea polyphenol extracts induced weight loss and anti-inflammatory and angiogenic effects, although the tissue content of polyphenols differed significantly.

 

Get the whole article here

Antifibrotic properties of epigallocatechin-3-gallate in endometriosis

Author: Sachiko Matsuzaki and Claude Darcha

STUDY QUESTION: Is epigallocatechin-3-gallate (EGCG) treatment effective in the treatment of fibrosis in endometriosis? SUMMARY ANSWER: EGCG appears to have antifibrotic properties in endometriosis. WHAT IS KNOWN ALREADY: Histologically, endometriosis is characterized by dense fibrous tissue surrounding the endometrial glands and stroma. However, only a few studies to date have evaluated candidate new therapies for endometriosis-associated fibrosis. STUDY DESIGN, SIZE, DURATION: For this laboratory study, samples from 55 patients (45 with and 10 without endometriosis) of reproductive age with normal menstrual cycles were analyzed. A total of 40 nude mice received single injection proliferative endometrial fragments from a total of 10 samples. PARTICIPANTS/MATERIALS, SETTING, METHODS: The in vitro effects of EGCG and N-acetyl-l-cysteine on fibrotic markers (alpha-smooth muscle actin, type I collagen, connective tissue growth factor and fibronectin) with and without transforming growth factor (TGF)-β1 stimulation, as well as on cell proliferation, migration and invasion and collagen gel contraction of endometrial and endometriotic stromal cells were evaluated by real-time PCR, immunocytochemistry, cell proliferation assays, in vitro migration and invasion assays and/or collagen gel contraction assays. The in vitro effects of EGCG on mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) and Smad signaling pathways in endometrial and endometriotic stromal cells were evaluated by western blotting. Additionally, the effects of EGCG treatment on endometriotic implants were evaluated in a xenograft model of endometriosis in immunodeficient nude mice. MAIN RESULTS AND THE ROLE OF CHANCE: Treatment with EGCG significantly inhibited cell proliferation, migration and invasion of endometrial and endometriotic stromal cells from patients with endometriosis. In addition, EGCG treatment significantly decreased the TGF-β1-dependent increase in the mRNA expression of fibrotic markers in both endometriotic and endometrial stromal cells. Both endometriotic and endometrial stromal cell-mediated contraction of collagen gels were significantly attenuated at 8, 12 and 24 h after treatment with EGCG. Epigallocatechin-3-gallate also significantly inhibited TGF-β1-stimulated activation of MAPK and Smad signaling pathways in endometrial and endometriotic stromal cells. Animal experiments showed that EGCG prevented the progression of fibrosis in endometriosis. LIMITATIONS, REASONS FOR CAUTION: The attractiveness of epigallocatechin-3-gallate as a drug candidate has been diminished by its relatively low bioavailability. However, numerous alterations to the EGCG molecule have been patented, either to improve the integrity of the native compound or to generate a more stable yet similarly efficacious molecule. Therefore, EGCG and its derivatives, analogs and prodrugs could potentially be developed into agents for the future treatment and/or prevention of endometriosis. WIDER IMPLICATIONS OF THE FINDINGS: Epigallocatechin-3-gallate is a potential drug candidate for the treatment and/or prevention of endometriosis. STUDY FUNDING/COMPETING INTERESTS: This study was supported in part by Karl Storz Endoscopy & GmbH (Tuttlingen, Germany). No competing interests are declared.

 

Get the whole article here

Other Popular Research Topics

Cognitive Function

Cognitive Function

Matcha consumption leads to much higher intake of green tea phytochemicals compared to regular green tea. Previous research on caffeine, L-theanine, and epigallocatechin gallate (EGCG) repeatedly demonstrated benefits on cognitive performance.

Learn More
Heart Health

Heart Health

According to Harvard Medical School, “lowering your risk of cardiovascular disease may be as easy as drinking green tea. Studies suggest this light, aromatic tea may lower LDL cholesterol and triglycerides, which may be responsible for the tea's association with reduced risk of death from heart disease and stroke.”

Learn More
Mental Health

Mental Health

Matcha contains an amino acid called L-theanine, which has been shown to reduce physiological and psychological stresses. L-theanine also improves cognition and mood in a synergistic manner with caffeine, and promotes alpha wave production in the brain

Learn More
Cancer Prevention

Cancer Prevention

Matcha/green tea has for many centuries been regarded as an essential part of good health in Japan and China. Many believe it can help reduce the risk of cancer, and a growing body of evidence backs this up.

Learn More