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cognitive-function

Matcha consumption leads to much higher intake of green tea phytochemicals compared to regular green tea. Previous research on caffeine, L-theanine, and epigallocatechin gallate (EGCG) repeatedly demonstrated benefits on cognitive performance.
Matcha consumption leads to much higher intake of green tea phytochemicals compared to regular green tea. Previous research on caffeine, L-theanine, and epigallocatechin gallate (EGCG) repeatedly demonstrated benefits on cognitive performance.

Recent Research Papers on
cognitive-function

Total and Specific Polyphenol Intakes in Midlife Are Associated with Cognitive Function Measured 13 Years Later

Author: Emmanuelle Kesse-Guyot, Léopold Fezeu, Valentina A. Andreeva, Mathilde Touvier, Augustin Scalbert, Serge Hercberg and Pilar Galan

Polyphenols, and in particular flavonoids, are omnipresent plant-food components displaying biochemical properties possibly beneficial to brain health. We sought to evaluate the long-term association between total and class-specific polyphenol intake and cognitive performance. Polyphenol intake was estimated using the Phenol-Explorer database applied to at least six 24-h dietary records collected in 1994-1996 as part of the SU.VI.MAX (Supplémentation en Vitamines et Minéraux Antioxydants) study. The cognitive performance of 2574 middle-aged adults participating in the cohort was assessed in 2007-2009 using the following four neuropsychological tests: phonemic and semantic fluency, the RI-48 Cued Recall test, the Trail Making test, and Forward and Backward Digit Span. Inter-correlations among the test scores were estimated with principal component analysis. Associations between polyphenol intake and cognition were assessed by multivariate linear regression and ANCOVA. In multivariate models, high total polyphenol intake was associated with better language and verbal memory (P = 0.01) but not with executive functioning (P = 0.09). More specifically, intake of catechins (P = 0.001), theaflavins (P = 0.002), flavonols (P = 0.01), and hydroxybenzoic acids (P = 0.0004) was positively associated with language and verbal memory, especially with episodic memory assessed by the RI-48 test. In contrast, negative associations between scores on executive functioning and intake of dihydrochalcones (P = 0.01), catechins (P = 0.01), proanthocyanidins (P = 0.01), and flavonols (P = 0.01) were detected. High intake of specific polyphenols, including flavonoids and phenolic acids, may help to preserve verbal memory, which is a salient vulnerable domain in pathological brain aging. Further investigations are needed to clarify the observed negative associations regarding executive functioning.

 

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Green tea consumption and the risk of incident functional disability in elderly Japanese: the Ohsaki Cohort 2006 Study

Author: Yasutake Tomata, Masako Kakizaki, Naoki Nakaya, Toru Tsuboya, Toshimasa Sone, Shinichi Kuriyama, Atsushi Hozawa, and Ichiro Tsuji

Background: Previous studies have reported that green tea consumption is associated with a lower risk of diseases that cause functional disability, such as stroke, cognitive impairment, and osteoporosis. Although it is expected that green tea consumption would lower the risk of incident functional disability, this has never been investigated directly. Objective: The objective was to determine the association between green tea consumption and incident functional disability in elderly individuals. Design: We conducted a prospective cohort study in 13,988 Japanese individuals aged ≥65 y. Information on daily green tea consumption and other lifestyle factors was collected via questionnaire in 2006. Data on functional disability were retrieved from the public Long-term Care Insurance database, in which subjects were followed up for 3 y. We used Cox proportional hazards regression analysis to investigate the association between green tea consumption and functional disability. Results: The 3-y incidence of functional disability was 9.4% (1316 cases). The multiple-adjusted HR (95% CI) of incident functional disability was 0.90 (0.77, 1.06) among respondents who consumed 1–2 cups green tea/d, 0.75 (0.64, 0.88) for those who consumed 3–4 cups/d, and 0.67 (0.57, 0.79) for those who consumed ≥5 cups/d in comparison with those who consumed <1 cup/d (P-trend < 0.001). Conclusion: Green tea consumption is significantly associated with a lower risk of incident functional disability, even after adjustment for possible confounding factors.

 

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The Effect of Green Tea Extract on Fat Oxidation at Rest and during Exercise: Evidence of Efficacy and Proposed Mechanisms

Author: Adrian B. Hodgson, Rebecca K. Randell, and Asker E. Jeukendrup

Green tea is made from the leaves of the Camellia sinensis L plant, which is rich in polyphenol catechins and caffeine. There is increasing interest in the potential role of green tea extract (GTE) in fat metabolism and its influence on health and exercise performance. A number of studies have observed positive effects of GTE on fat metabolism at rest and during exercise, following both shorter and longer term intake. However, overall, the literature is inconclusive. The fact that not all studies observed effects may be related to differences in study designs, GTE bioavailability, and variation of the measurement (fat oxidation). In addition, the precise mechanisms of GTE in the human body that increase fat oxidation are unclear. The often-cited in vitro catechol-O-methyltransferase mechanism is used to explain the changes in substrate metabolism with little in vivo evidence to support it. Also, changes in expression of fat metabolism genes with longer term GTE intake have been implicated at rest and with exercise training, including the upregulation of fat metabolism enzyme gene expression in the skeletal muscle and downregulation of adipogenic genes in the liver. The exact molecular signaling that activates changes to fat metabolism gene expression is unclear but may be driven by PPAR-γ coactivator 1-α and PPARs. However, to date, evidence from human studies to support these adaptations is lacking. Clearly, more studies have to be performed to elucidate the effects of GTE on fat metabolism as well as improve our understanding of the underlying mechanisms.

 

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Catechin- and caffeine-rich teas for control of body weight in humans

Author: Rick Hursel and Margriet S Westerterp-Plantenga

Maintaining the level of daily energy expenditure during weight loss and weight maintenance is as important as maintaining satiety while decreasing energy intake. In this context, different catechin- and caffeine-rich teas (CCRTs), such as green, oolong, and white teas, as well as caffeine have been proposed as tools for maintaining or enhancing energy expenditure and for increasing fat oxidation. Tea polyphenols have been proposed to counteract the decrease in metabolic rate that is usually present during weight loss. Their effects may be of particular importance during weight maintenance after weight loss. Although the thermogenic effect of CCRT has the potential to produce significant effects on these metabolic targets as well as on fat absorption and energy intake, possibly via its impact on the gut microbiota and gene expression, a clinically meaningful outcome also depends on compliance by the subjects. Limitations to this approach require further examination, including moderating factors such as genetic predisposition, habitual caffeine intake, and catechin composition and dose. Nevertheless, CCRTs may be useful agents that could help in preventing a positive energy balance and obesity.

 

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Effects of green tea catechins with or without caffeine on glycemic control in adults: a meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials

Author: Xin-Xin Zheng, Yan-Lu Xu, Shao-Hua Li, Rutai Hui, Yong-Jian Wu, and Xiao-Hong Huang

Background: The effect of green tea catechins (GTCs) with or without caffeine on glycemic control is controversial. Objective: We aimed to identify and quantify the effects of GTCs or GTC-caffeine mixtures on glucose metabolism in adults. Design: A comprehensive literature search was conducted to identify relevant trials of GTCs with or without caffeine on markers of glycemic control [fasting blood glucose (FBG), fasting blood insulin (FBI), glycated hemoglobin (Hb A1c), and homeostatic model assessment of insulin resistance (HOMA-IR)]. Weighted mean differences were calculated for net changes by using fixed-effects models. Prespecified subgroup analyses were performed to explore the influence of covariates on net changes in FBG and FBI concentrations. Results: Twenty-two eligible randomized controlled trials with 1584 subjects were identified. Pooled analyses showed that FBG (−1.48 mg/dL; 95% CI: −2.57, −0.40 mg/dL) decreased significantly with GTCs with or without caffeine, whereas FBI (0.04 μU/mL; 95% CI: −0.36, 0.45 μU/mL), Hb A1c (−0.04%; 95% CI: −0.15, 0.08%), and HOMA-IR (−0.05; 95% CI: −0.37, 0.26) did not. Subgroup analyses indicated that the glucose-lowering effect was apparent when the duration of follow-up was over a median of 12 wk. Overall, no significant heterogeneity was detected for FBG, FBI, Hb A1c, or HOMA-IR. Conclusions: The meta-analysis showed that the administration of GTCs with or without caffeine resulted in a significant reduction in FBG. The limited data available on GTCs did not support a positive effect on FBI, Hb A1c, or HOMA-IR. Thus, more large and well-designed trials are needed in the future.

 

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Tea and flavonoids: where we are, where to go next

Author: Johanna T Dwyer and Julia Peterson

There is a need to evaluate the evidence about the health effects of tea flavonoids and to provide valid, specific, and actionable tea consumption information to consumers. Emerging evidence suggests that the flavonoids in tea may be associated with beneficial health outcomes, whereas the benefits and risks of tea extracts and supplements are less well known. The next steps in developing tea science should include a focus on the most promising leads, such as reducing the risk of cardiovascular disease and stroke, rather than pursuing smaller, more diffuse studies of many different health outcomes. Future tea research should also include the use of common reference standards, better characterization of intervention products, and application of batteries of biomarkers of intakes and outcomes across studies, which will allow a common body of evidence to be developed. Mechanistic studies should determine which tea bioactive constituents have effects, whether they act alone or in combination, and how they influence health. Clinical studies should use well-characterized test products, better descriptions of baseline diets, and validated biomarkers of intake and disease risk reduction. There should be more attention to careful safety monitoring and adverse event reporting. Epidemiologic investigations should be of sufficient size and duration to detect small effects, involve populations most likely to benefit, use more complete tea exposure assessment, and include both intermediary markers of risk as well as morbidity and mortality outcomes. The construction of a strong foundation of scientific evidence on tea and health outcomes is essential for developing more specific and actionable messages on tea for consumers.

 

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Epigallocatechin-3-Gallate Reduces Myometrial Infiltration, Uterine Hyperactivity, and Stress Levels and Alleviates Generalized Hyperalgesia in Mice Induced With Adenomyosis

Author: Yumei Chen, Bo Zhu, Hongping Zhang, Xishi Liu, Sun-Wei Guo

In an effort to search for novel therapeutics for adenomyosis, we sought to determine whether treatment with epigallocatechin-3-gallate (EGCG) would suppress the myometrial infiltration, improve pain behavior, lower stress level, and reduce uterine contractility in a mice model of adenomyosis. Adenomyosis was induced in 28 female ICR mice neonatally dosed with tamoxifen, while another 12 (group C) were dosed with solvent only, which served as a blank control. Starting from 4 weeks after birth, hot plate test was administrated to all mice every 4 weeks. At the 16th week, all mice induced with adenomyosis were randomly divided into 3 groups: low-dose EGCG (5 mg/kg), high-dose EGCG (50 mg/kg), and untreated. Group C received no treatment. After 3 weeks of treatment, the hot plate test was administered again, a blood sample was taken to measure the plasma corticosterone level by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, and then all mice were sacrificed. The depth of myometrial infiltration and uterine contractility were also evaluated. We found that the induction of adenomyosis resulted in progressive generalized hyperalgesia, along with elevated amplitude and frequency of uterine contractions as well as elevated plasma corticosterone levels. The EGCG treatment dose dependently suppressed myometrial infiltration, improved generalized hyperalgesia, reduced uterine contractility, and lowered plasma corticosterone levels. These results suggest that induced adenomyosis causes pain and elevates stress levels in mice. Uterine hyperactivity may contribute to dysmenorrhea in women with adenomyosis who might also have elevated stress level due to pain. The EGCG appears to be a promising compound for treating adenomyosis.

 

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Does tea prevent cancer? Evidence from laboratory and human intervention studies

Author: Joshua D Lambert

Tea (Camellia sinensis) is a widely consumed beverage and has been extensively studied for its cancer-preventive activity. Both the polyphenolic constituents as well as the caffeine in tea have been implicated as potential cancer-preventive compounds; the relative importance seems to depend on the cancer type. Green tea and the green tea catechin have been shown to inhibit tumorigenesis at a number of organ sites and to be effective when administered either during the initiation or postinitiation phases of carcinogenesis. Black tea, although not as well studied as green tea, has also shown cancer-preventive effects in laboratory models. A number of potential mechanisms have been proposed to account for the cancer-preventive effects of tea, including modulation of phase II metabolism, alterations in redox environment, inhibition of growth factor signaling, and others. In addition to the laboratory studies, there is a growing body of human intervention studies suggesting that tea can slow cancer progression and modify biomarkers relevant to carcinogenesis. Although available data are promising, many questions remain with regard to the dose-response relations of tea constituents in various models, the primary mechanisms of action, and the potential for combination chemoprevention strategies that involve tea as well as other dietary or pharmaceutical agents. The present review examines the available data from laboratory animal and human intervention studies on tea and cancer prevention. These data were evaluated, and areas for further research are identified.

 

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Epidemiologic Evidence of a Relationship between Tea, Coffee, or Caffeine Consumption and Cognitive Decline

Author: Lenore Arab, Faraz Khan, and Helen Lam

A systematic literature review of human studies relating caffeine or caffeine-rich beverages to cognitive decline reveals only 6 studies that have collected and analyzed cognition data in a prospective fashion that enables study of decline across the spectrum of cognition. These 6 studies, in general, evaluate cognitive function using the Mini Mental State Exam and base their beverage data on FFQs. Studies included in our review differed in their source populations, duration of study, and most dramatically in how their analyses were done, disallowing direct quantitative comparisons of their effect estimates. Only one of the studies reported on all 3 exposures, coffee, tea, and caffeine, making comparisons of findings across studies more difficult. However, in general, it can be stated that for all studies of tea and most studies of coffee and caffeine, the estimates of cognitive decline were lower among consumers, although there is a lack of a distinct dose response. Only a few measures showed a quantitative significance and, interestingly, studies indicate a stronger effect among women than men.

 

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Possible Loss of GABAergic Inhibition in Mice With Induced Adenomyosis and Treatment With Epigallocatechin-3-Gallate Attenuates the Loss With Improved Hyperalgesia

Author: Yumei Chen, Bo Zhu, Hongping Zhang, Ding Ding, Xishi Liu, Sun-Wei Guo

We have previously reported that induction of adenomyosis in mice results in progressive hyperalgesia, uterine hyperactivity, and elevated plasma corticosterone levels and that epigallocatechin-3-gallate (EGCG) treatment dose dependently suppressed myometrial infiltration and improved generalized hyperalgesia. In this study, we examined whether adenomyosis induced in mice results in the loss of GABAergic inhibition as manifested by the diminished glutamate decarboxylase (GAD) 65-expressing neurons in the brainstem nucleus raphe magnus (NRM) that could correlate with heightened hyperalgesia. We also evaluated whether EGCG treatment would reverse these changes and also improve the expression of some proteins known to be involved in adenomyosis. Adenomyosis was induced in 28 female ICR mice and additional 12 were used as blank controls, as reported previously. At the 16th week, all mice with induced adenomyosis received low- or high-dose EGCG treatment or untreated. Mice without adenomyosis received no treatment. After 3 weeks of treatment, their uterine horns and brains were harvested. The right uterine horn was used for immunohistochemistry analysis and for counting the number of macrophages infiltrating into the ectopic endometrium. The brainstem NRM sections were subjected to immunofluorescence staining for GAD65. We found that mice with induced adenomyosis had significantly diminished GAD65-expressing neurons, concomitant with heightened hyperalgesia. Treatment with EGCG increased these neurons in conjunction with improved hyperalgesia, reduced the expression of p-p65, cycloxygenase 2, oxytocin receptor, collagen I and IV, and transient receptor potential vanilloid type 1 in ectopic endometrium or myometrium, reduced the number of macrophages infiltrating into the ectopic endometrium while elevated the expression of progesterone receptor isoform B. Thus, adenomyosis-induced pain resembles neuropathic pain in that there is a remarkable central plasticity.

 

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Other Popular Research Topics

Heart Health

Heart Health

According to Harvard Medical School, “lowering your risk of cardiovascular disease may be as easy as drinking green tea. Studies suggest this light, aromatic tea may lower LDL cholesterol and triglycerides, which may be responsible for the tea's association with reduced risk of death from heart disease and stroke.”

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Mental Health

Mental Health

Matcha contains an amino acid called L-theanine, which has been shown to reduce physiological and psychological stresses. L-theanine also improves cognition and mood in a synergistic manner with caffeine, and promotes alpha wave production in the brain

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Cancer Prevention

Cancer Prevention

Matcha/green tea has for many centuries been regarded as an essential part of good health in Japan and China. Many believe it can help reduce the risk of cancer, and a growing body of evidence backs this up.

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Immunity

Immunity

A recent study in the journal Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences concluded that drinking matcha daily greatly enhanced the overall response of the immune system. The exceedingly high levels of antioxidants in matcha mainly take the form of polyphenols, catechins, and flavonoids, each of which aids the body’s defense in its daily struggles against free radicals that come from the pollution in your air, water and foods.

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