Volatile N-nitrosamine inhibition after intake Korean green tea and Maesil (Prunus mume SIEB. et ZACC.) extracts with an amine-rich diet in subjects ingesting nitrate
Author: S.Y. Choi and M.J. Chung and N.J. Sung
The formation of carcinogenic nitrosamines under simulated gastric conditions was studied during the incubation of amine rich food and nitrate, and its possible inhibition by adding kumquat, sweet orange, strawberry, garlic, kale juices, Maesil (Prunus mume) and green tea extracts. The strawberry, kale juices, Maesil and green tea extracts were equally effective in reducing the formation of N-nitrosodimethylamine (NDMA). The fruits of P. mume SIEB. et ZACC. (Korean name, Maesil) have been used as a traditional drug and health food in Korea. During four weeks of test (designated EW1, EW2, EW3 and EW4; experiment week 1, 2, 3 and 4 diets) volunteers consumed a diet of low nitrate and amine (EW1) and consumed a fish meal rich in amines as nitrosatable precursors in combination with intake of nitrate-containing drinking water without (EW2) or with Maesil and green tea extracts (EW3 and EW4, respectively). The intake of nitrate-containing drinking water (340 mg nitrate/100 ml) resulted in a significant rise in mean salivary nitrate and nitrite concentrations and in mean urinary nitrate levels. Mean urinary nitrate was increased to 455.0±66.2, 334.6±67.8 and 333.4±50.7 mg/18 h after the nitrate intake of EW2, EW3 and EW4, respectively. Significant increases in urinary dimethylamine and trimethylamine levels were observed in consumption of diets (EW2, EW3, and EW4) rich in amine and nitrate. Maesil and green tea extract in EW3 and EW4 enhanced the increase of urinary dimethylamine and trimethylamine levels. Urinary excretion of N-nitrosodimethylamine in consumption of diet rich in nitrate and amine (EW2) increased to 6504.4±2638.7 ng/18 h from 257.0±112.0 ng/18 h of low nitrate and amine diet (EW1). Korean green tea and Maesil extracts in nitrate and amine rich diet reduced the excretion of N-nitrosodimethylamine to 249.7±90.6 and 752.7±595.3 ng/18 h, respectively, compared with 6504.4±2638.7 ng /18 h after ingestion of TD1 diet.