immunity

A recent study in the journal Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences concluded that drinking matcha daily greatly enhanced the overall response of the immune system. The exceedingly high levels of antioxidants in matcha mainly take the form of polyphenols, catechins, and flavonoids, each of which aids the body’s defense in its daily struggles against free radicals that come from the pollution in your air, water and foods.
A recent study in the journal Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences concluded that drinking matcha daily greatly enhanced the overall response of the immune system. The exceedingly high levels of antioxidants in matcha mainly take the form of polyphenols, catechins, and flavonoids, each of which aids the body’s defense in its daily struggles against free radicals that come from the pollution in your air, water and foods.

Recent Research Papers on
immunity

In vitro activity of 23 tea extractions and epigallocatechin gallate against Candida species

Author: Ming Chen and Lin Zhai and Maiken Cavling Arendrup

In this study, we investigate the susceptibility of Candida albicans, Candida glabrata, Candida krusei, Candida parapsilosis, Candida tropicalis, and Aspergillus fumigatus using the EUCAST microdilution minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) method (final tea supernatant concentration range 5.0-0.005 mg/ml) to 23 different teas and tea catechins including epigallocatechin gallate (EGCG) isolated from green tea. All teas exhibited potent in vitro antifungal activity against C. glabrata. Six out of nine green teas and three of eight black teas had an MIC of 0.078 mg/ml, one white tea had an MIC of 0.156 mg/ml, and finally three of five oolong teas had an MIC of 0.156 mg/ml. Three teas exhibited activity against C. albicans (MIC 1.25 mg/ml), one green tea was active against C. parapsilosis (MIC 1.25 mg/ml), but none were effective against C. krusei, C. tropicalis or A. fumigatus at the concentrations tested. The MIC of EGCG was 0.3125 μg/ml against C. glabrata and 5.0 μg/ml against C. albicans and C. parapsilosis. The effect was fungicidal against C. glabrata at higher concentrations. In conclusion, EGCG and other yet undefined substances in tea have differential antifungal activity in vitro against C. glabrata, C. albicans and C. parapsilosis. These data indicate that components of tea and EGCG might be useful particularly for the treatment of C. glabrata infections and warrants further investigations.

 

 

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Effects of dietary supplementation with green tea polyphenols on digestion and meat quality in lambs infected with Haemonchus contortus

Effects of dietary supplementation with green tea polyphenols on digestion and meat quality in lambs infected with Haemonchus contortus

Author: Zhong RZ and Li HY and Fang Y and Sun HX and Zhou DW

Ujumqin sheep are susceptible to infection by the gastrointestinal nematode Haemonchus contortus, which reduces productivity and total meat yield in sheep. Thus, the effects of green tea polyphenol (GTP) supplements (0, 2, 4, or 6 g of GTP/kg feed) on dietary nutrient digestibility and meat quality in lambs infected with H. contortus were examined; control lambs were not infected. H. contortusinfections did not affect digestion but the apparent digestibilities of nutrients were decreased by dietary 2 g of GTP/kg feed supplementation. There was an interaction between treatment and sampling time on plasma total protein, urea nitrogen, and amino acid concentrations. The antioxidant activity and meat color of INFGTP0 lambs decreased. In conclusion, H. contortus infections in lambs decreased meat quality, but appropriate levels of dietary GTP supplementation diminished these negative effects though lower dose of GTP supplement showed negative effects on digestion.

 

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Green Tea Protects Rats against Autoimmune Arthritis by Modulating Disease-Related Immune Events

Author: Hong Ro Kim and Rajesh Rajaiah and Qing-Li Wu and Shailesh R. Satpute and Ming T. Tan and James E. Simon and Brian M. Berman and Kamal D. Moudgil

Green tea, a product of the dried leaves of Camellia sinensis, is the most widely consumed beverage in the world. The polyphenolic compounds from green tea (PGT) possess antiinflammatory properties. We investigated whether PGT can afford protection against autoimmune arthritis and also examined the immunological basis of this effect using the rat adjuvant arthritis (AA) model of human rheumatoid arthritis (RA). AA can be induced in Lewis rats (RT.1l) by immunization with heat-killed Mycobacterium tuberculosis H37Ra (Mtb), and arthritic rats raise a T cell response to the mycobacterial heat-shock protein 65 (Bhsp65). Rats consumed green tea (2–12 g/L) in drinking water for 1–3 wk and then were injected with Mtb to induce disease. Thereafter, they were observed regularly and graded for signs of arthritis. Subgroups of these rats were killed at defined time points and their draining lymph node cells were harvested and tested for T cell proliferative and cytokine responses. Furthermore, the sera collected from these rats were tested for anti-Bhsp65 antibodies. Feeding 8 g/L PGT to Lewis rats for 9 d significantly reduced the severity of arthritis compared with the water-fed controls. Interestingly, PGT-fed rats had a lower concentration of the proinflammatory cytokine interleukin (IL)-17 but a greater concentration of the immunoregulatory cytokine IL-10 than controls. PGT feeding also suppressed the anti-Bhsp65 antibody response. Thus, green tea induced changes in arthritis-related immune responses. We suggest further systematic exploration of dietary supplementation with PGT as an adjunct nutritional strategy for the management of RA.

 

 

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Green tea polyphenols (flavan 3-ols) prevent oxidative modification of low density lipoproteins: an ex vivo study in humans

Author: Yukiko Miura and Tsuyoshi Chiba and Shinji Miura and Isao Tomita and Keizo Umegaki and Masahiko Ikeda and Takako Tomita

Oxidation of low density lipoprotein (LDL) plays crucial roles in atherogenesis. We previously reported that green tea polyphenols (flavan 3-ols), especially epigallocatechingallate (EGCg) and epicatechingallate, exerted potent inhibitory effects on LDL oxidation in vitro. To examine whether intake of green tea polyphenols renders LDL resistant to ex vivo oxidation in humans, 22 male volunteers aged between 22 and 32 years were recruited and assigned the same dietary regimen for 2 weeks. After a 1-week baseline period, they were equally divided into two groups: control and tea. The tea group ingested 300 mg of green tea polyphenol extract twice daily for 1 week. Plasma EGCg concentration at the end of the experiment was 56 nmol/L on average (56% in free form) in the tea group; no EGCg was detected before the experiment. Plasma concentrations of lipids, ascorbate, α-tocopherol, and lipid peroxides did not change before and after the experiment in either group, but β-carotene was higher in the tea group (P< 0.01 by paired Student’st-test). LDL (0.1 mg/mL) was incubated with 5 μM Cu2+ and the oxidation was measured by absorbance at 234 nm. The lag time was significantly prolonged by 13.7 min in the tea group (P < 0.05 by paired Student’st-test, before versus after), whereas such a change was not observed in the control group. These results suggest that daily consumption of seven to eight cups (approximately 100 mL each cup) of green tea may increase resistance of LDL to in vivo oxidation, leading to reduction in the risk of cardiovascular diseases.

 

 

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Mechanisms of chronic disease causation by nutritional factors and tobacco products and their prevention by tea polyphenols

Author: J.H Weisburger and Fung-Lung Chung

The beverage tea, from the top leaves of the plant Camellia sinensis is one of the most widely used beverages in the world, second only to water. Black and green tea have mostly similar actions. The active components are polyphenols, mainly epigallocatechin gallate in green tea, and the tea leaf polyphenol oxidase mediated oxidation to oolong and black tea, yielding other polyphenols, theaflavin and thearubigins. There is 40−50 mg caffeine in a 160-ml cup of tea. The chemopreventive effects of tea depend on: (1) its action as an antioxidant; (2) the specific induction of detoxifying enzymes; (3) its molecular regulatory functions on cellular growth, development and apoptosis; and (4) a selective improvement in the function of the intestinal bacterial flora. The oxidation of LDL cholesterol, associated with a risk for atherosclerosis and heart disease, is inhibited by tea. Many of cancers are caused by lifestyle elements. One is cigarette and tobacco use, leading to cancer in the oral cavity, esophagus and lung, inhibited by tea. Mice administered a tobacco nitrosamine, 4-(methylnitrosamino)-1-(3-pyridyl)-1-butanone (NNK), developed significantly fewer lung tumors than controls when given green tea or its major polyphenol, epigallocatechin gallate (EGCG). Tea suppressed the formation of 8-hydroxydeoxyguanosine (8-OHdG), a marker of oxidative DNA damage, in the lung DNA of mice given NNK. Gastric cancer, caused by a combination of Helicobacter pylori and salted foods, is lower in tea drinkers. Western nutritionally-linked cancers of the breast, colon, prostate and pancreas can be inhibited by tea. The formation of genotoxic carcinogens for these target organs during the cooking of meats, heterocyclic amines, and their effects were decreased by tea. Tea inhibited the formation of reactive oxygen species and radicals and induced cytochromes P450 1A1, 1A2 and 2B1, and glucuronosyl transferase. The higher formation of glucuronides represents an important mechanism in detoxification. The developmental aspects and growth of cancers through promotion are decreased by tea. The regular use of a widely available, tasty, inexpensive beverage, tea, has displayed valuable preventive properties in chronic human diseases.

 

 

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Green tea protection of hypoxia/reoxygenation injury in cultured cardiac cells

Author: Alessandra Bordoni and Silvana Hrelia and Cristina Angeloni and Emanuele Giordano and Carlo Guarnieri and Claudio M Caldarera and Pier L Biagi

Antioxidant-rich diets exert a protective effect in diseases involving oxidative damage. Among dietary components, green tea is an excellent source of antioxidants. In this study, cultured neonatal rat cardiomyocytes were used to clarify the protective effect of a green tea extract on cell damage and lipid peroxidation induced by different periods of hypoxia followed by reoxigenation. Cultures of neonatal rat cardiomyocytes were exposed to 2–8 hr hypoxia, eventually followed by reoxygenation, in the absence or presence of α-tocopherol or green tea. LDH release and the production of conjugated diene lipids were measured, and appeared linearly related to the duration of hypoxia. During hypoxia, both LDH release and conjugated diene production were reduced by α-tocopherol and, in a dose dependent manner, by green tea, the 50 μg/ml being the most effective dose. Reoxygenation caused no further increase in LDH leakage, while it caused a significant increase in conjugate dienes, which absolute value was lower in antioxidant supplemented cells. Anyway, the ratio between conjugated diene production after hypoxia and after reoxygenation was similar in all groups, indicating that the severity of free radical-induced reoxygenation injury is proportional to the severity of previous hypoxic injury. Since hypoxic damage is reduced by α-tocopherol and green tea, our data suggest that any nutritional intervention to attenuate reoxygenation injury must be directed toward the attenuation of the hypoxic injury. Therefore, recommendations about a high dietary intake of antioxidants may be useful not only in the prevention, but also in the reduction of cardiac injury following ischemia.

 

 

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Protective effect of green tea against lipid peroxidation in the rat liver, blood serum and the brain

Author: E. Skrzydlewska and J. Ostrowska and R. Farbiszewski and K. Michalak

Summary This paper reports data on the effect of green tea on the lipid peroxidation products formation and parameters of antioxidative system of the liver, blood serum and central nervous tissue of healthy young rats drinking green tea for five weeks. The rats were permitted free access to solubilized extract of green tea. Bioactive ingredients of green tea extract caused in the liver an increase in the activity of glutathione peroxidase and glutathione reductase and in the content of reduced glutathione as well as marked decrease in lipid hydroperoxides (LOOH), 4-hydroksynonenal (4-HNE) and malondialdehyde (MDA). The concentration of vitamin A increased by about 40%. Minor changes in the measured parameters were observed in the blood serum. GSH content increased slightly, whereas the index of the total antioxidant status increased significantly. In contrast, the lipid peroxidation products, particularly MDA was significantly diminished. In the central nervous tissue the activity of superoxide dismutase and glutathione peroxidase decreased while the activity od glutathione reductase and catalase increased after drinking green tea. Moreover the level of LOOH, 4-HNE and MDA significantly decreased. The use of green tea extract appeared to be beneficial to rats in reducing lipid peroxidation products. These results support and substantiate traditional consumption of green tea as protection against lipid peroxidation in the liver, blood serum, and central nervous tissue.

 

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Effect of green tea in the prevention and reversal of fasting-induced intestinal mucosal damage

Author: Sami Asfar and Suad Abdeen and Hussein Dashti and Mousa Khoursheed and Hilal Al-Sayer and Thazhumpal Mathew and Abdullatif Al-Bader

Objective Epidemiologic studies have suggested that high consumption of green tea protects against the development of chronic active gastritis and decreases the risk of stomach cancer. The effect of green tea on the intestinal mucosa was not studied previously, so we examined the effects of green tea on the intestinal mucosa of fasting rats in a controlled experimental setting. Methods Two sets of experiments were performed. In the recovery set, rats were fasted for 3 d, after which they were allowed free access to water, black tea, green tea, or vitamin E for 7 d. On day 8, the animals were killed, and small bowels were removed for histologic examination. In the pretreatment set, rats were allowed a normal diet, but the water supply was replaced with green tea, black tea, or vitamin E for 14 d. They were subsequently fasted for 3 d. On day 4, the rats were killed, and small bowels were removed for histologic examination. Results In the recovery set, fasting for 3 d caused shortening of villi, atrophy, and fragmentation of mucosal villous architecture, with a significant (P < 0.0001) reduction in the length and surface area of the villi. Ingestion of green tea and, to a lesser extent, vitamin E for 7 d helped in the recovery of villi to normal. In the pretreatment set, drinking green tea, black tea, or vitamin E for 14 d before fasting protected intestinal mucosa from damage. Conclusion The mucosal and villous atrophy induced by fasting was reverted to normal by the ingestion of green tea and, to a lesser extent, vitamin E. Black tea ingestion had no effect. In addition, ingestion of black tea, green tea, and vitamin E before fasting protected the intestinal mucosa against atrophy.

 

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Is green tea good for HIV-1 infection?

Author: Christina L Nance and William T Shearer

 

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Food allergy to green tea

Author: Toshihiro Shirai and Hiroshi Hayakawa and Jinichiro Akiyama and Masatoshi Iwata and Kingo Chida and Hirotoshi Nakamura and Masami Taniguchi and Khaled Reshad

 

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Other Popular Research Topics

Cognitive Function

Cognitive Function

Matcha consumption leads to much higher intake of green tea phytochemicals compared to regular green tea. Previous research on caffeine, L-theanine, and epigallocatechin gallate (EGCG) repeatedly demonstrated benefits on cognitive performance.

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Heart Health

Heart Health

According to Harvard Medical School, “lowering your risk of cardiovascular disease may be as easy as drinking green tea. Studies suggest this light, aromatic tea may lower LDL cholesterol and triglycerides, which may be responsible for the tea's association with reduced risk of death from heart disease and stroke.”

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Mental Health

Mental Health

Matcha contains an amino acid called L-theanine, which has been shown to reduce physiological and psychological stresses. L-theanine also improves cognition and mood in a synergistic manner with caffeine, and promotes alpha wave production in the brain

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Cancer Prevention

Cancer Prevention

Matcha/green tea has for many centuries been regarded as an essential part of good health in Japan and China. Many believe it can help reduce the risk of cancer, and a growing body of evidence backs this up.

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