heart-health

According to Harvard Medical School, “lowering your risk of cardiovascular disease may be as easy as drinking green tea. Studies suggest this light, aromatic tea may lower LDL cholesterol and triglycerides, which may be responsible for the tea's association with reduced risk of death from heart disease and stroke.”
According to Harvard Medical School, “lowering your risk of cardiovascular disease may be as easy as drinking green tea. Studies suggest this light, aromatic tea may lower LDL cholesterol and triglycerides, which may be responsible for the tea's association with reduced risk of death from heart disease and stroke.”

Recent Research Papers on
heart-health

Reduced LRP6 expression and increase in the interaction of GSK3β with p53 contribute to podocyte apoptosis in diabetes mellitus and are prevented by green tea

 

Authors: E.B. Peixoto and A. Papadimitriou and D.A.T. Teixeira and C. Montemurro and D.A. Duarte and K.C. Silva and P.P. Joazeiro and J.M. Lopes de Faria and J.B. Lopes de Faria

In diabetes mellitus (DM), podocyte apoptosis leads to albuminuria and nephropathy progression. Low-density lipoprotein receptor-related protein 6 (LRP6) is WNT pathway receptor that is involved in podocyte death, adhesion and motility. Glycogen synthase kinase 3 (GSK3) interaction with p53 (GSK3-p53) promotes apoptosis in carcinoma cells. It is unknown if GSK3-p53 contributes to podocyte apoptosis in DM. In experimental DM, green tea (GT) reduces albuminuria by an unknown mechanism. In the present study we assessed the role of the GSK3β-p53 in podocyte apoptosis and the effects of GT on these abnormalities. In diabetic spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHR), GT prevents podocyte`s p-LRP6 expression reduction, increased GSK3β-p53, and high p53 levels. In diabetic \{SHR\} rats, GT reduces podocyte apoptosis, foot process effacement and albuminuria. In immortalized mouse podocytes (iMPs), high glucose (HG), silencing RNA (siRNA), or blocking LRP6 (DKK-1) reduced p-LRP6 expression, leading to high GSK3β-p53, p53 expression, apoptosis, and increased albumin influx. GSK3β blockade by BIO reduced GSK3β-p53 and podocyte apoptosis. In iMPs under HG, GT reduced apoptosis and the albumin influx by blocking GSK3β-p53 following the rise in p-LRP6 expression. These effects of GT were prevented by LRP6 siRNA or DKK-1. In conclusion, in DM, WNT inhibition, via LRP6, increases GSK3β-p53 and podocyte apoptosis. Maneuvers that inactivate GSK3β-p53, such as GT, may be renoprotective in DM.

 

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Green tea consumption and the risk of the related factors of cardiovascular diseases and ischemic related diseases: A meta-analysis

 

Authors: Jun Pang and Zheng Zhang and Tong-zhang Zheng and Bryan A. Bassig and Junbo Ge and Yue-jin Yang and Dejia-Huang and Ming Bai and Yu Peng

Background

The effects of green tea intake on risk of cardiovascular disease (CVD) have not been well-defined. The aim of this meta-analysis was to evaluate the association between green tea consumption, CVD, and ischemic related diseases.

Methods

All observational studies and randomized trials that were published through October 2014 and that examined the association between green tea consumption and risk of cardiovascular and ischemic related diseases as the primary outcome were included in this meta-analysis. The quality of the included studies was evaluated according to the Cochrane Handbook 5.0.2 quality evaluation criteria.

Results

A total of 9 studies including 259,267 individuals were included in the meta-analysis. The results showed that those who didn't consume green tea had higher risks of CVD (OR = 1.19, 95% CI: 1.09–1.29), intracerebral hemorrhage (OR = 1.24, 95% CI: 1.03–1.49), and cerebral infarction (OR = 1.15, 95% CI: 1.01–1.30) compared to <1 cup green tea per day. Those who drank 1–3 cups of green tea per day had a reduced risk of myocardial infarction (OR = 0.81, 95% CI: 0.67–0.98) and stroke (OR = 0.64, 95% CI: 0.47–0.86) compared to those who drank <1 cup/day. Similarly, those who drank ≥4 cups/day had a reduced risk of myocardial infarction compared to those who drank <1 cup/day (OR = 0.68, 95% CI: 0.56–0.84). Those who consumed ≥10 cups/day of green tea were also shown to have lower LDL compared to the <3 cups/day group (MD = −0.90, 95% CI: −0.95 to −0.85).

Conclusions

Our meta-analysis provides evidence that consumption of green tea is associated with favorable outcomes with respect to risk of cardiovascular and ischemic related diseases.

 

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Green tea catechins and cardiovascular disease risk factors: Should a health claim be made by the United States Food and Drug Administration?

 

Authors: Morgan Murray and Chelsey Walchuk and Miyoung Suh and Peter J. Jones

"Green tea (Camellia sinensis) is an ancient beverage stemming from China more recently gaining interest in Western societies due to its antioxidant capacity. Cardiovascular disease (CVD) a disease of the heart and blood vessels is a result of increased lipid concentrations and blood pressure responsible for numerous deaths worldwide. Green tea is highly enriched in catechins which may be responsible for its proposed \{CVD\} prevention mechanism. The objective of this paper was to examine the scientific evidence pertaining to green tea and \{CVD\} risk and evaluate whether enough credible scientific evidence exists to support a health claim by the United States Food and Drug Administration (US FDA). Sixteen clinical studies have examined the effects of green tea on \{CVD\} risk factors however following a critical evaluation of these studies a health claim cannot be recommended due to the safety and metabolites of green tea as well due to lack of high quality and properly designed studies."

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Investigation of the interaction between soluble antioxidants in green tea and insoluble dietary fiber bound antioxidants

Author: Ecem Evrim Çelik and Vural Gökmen

This work investigates the possibility of interaction between insoluble dietary fiber bound antioxidants, specifically of wheat bran, and soluble antioxidants like those provide by aqueous infusions of green tea. Solutions of pure catechins were also assayed for comparison with those naturally found in tea. To accomplish this, the aqueous and alcohol soluble fractions as well as the lipid components of wheat bran were firstly removed and the freeze-dried insoluble residue was then treated with different concentrations of green tea infusions or aqueous solutions of epicatechin (EC) and epigallocatechin-3-gallate (EGCG) for certain time. Treatment with EC (0–200 μM) had no significant effect on the antioxidant capacity of insoluble bran fraction. However, treatment with EGCG significantly (p < 0.05) increased linearly the antioxidant capacity as a function of concentration (0–100 μM). Treatment with great tea infusions (1–3 g/100 ml) also increased the resulting antioxidant capacity of insoluble bran fraction, but the effect was lesser at higher infusion concentrations. Liquid chromatography couple to mass spectrometry (LC–MS) analyses of aqueous phases after treatment indicated comparable levels of decrease in the concentrations of catechins confirming their reaction with the radical forms of antioxidants bound to insoluble bran matrix.

 

 

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New insights into the mechanisms of polyphenols beyond antioxidant properties; lessons from the green tea polyphenol, epigallocatechin 3-gallate

Author: Hae-Suk Kim and Michael J. Quon and Jeong-a Kim

Green tea is rich in polyphenol flavonoids including catechins. Epigallocatechin 3-gallate (EGCG) is the most abundant and potent green tea catechin. EGCG has been extensively studied for its beneficial health effects as a nutriceutical agent. Based upon its chemical structure, EGCG is often classified as an antioxidant. However, treatment of cells with EGCG results in production of hydrogen peroxide and hydroxyl radicals in the presence of Fe (III). Thus, EGCG functions as a pro-oxidant in some cellular contexts. Recent investigations have revealed many other direct actions of EGCG that are independent from anti-oxidative mechanisms. In this review, we discuss these novel molecular mechanisms of action for EGCG. In particular, EGCG directly interacts with proteins and phospholipids in the plasma membrane and regulates signal transduction pathways, transcription factors, DNA methylation, mitochondrial function, and autophagy to exert many of its beneficial biological actions.

 

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Other Popular Research Topics

Cognitive Function

Cognitive Function

Matcha consumption leads to much higher intake of green tea phytochemicals compared to regular green tea. Previous research on caffeine, L-theanine, and epigallocatechin gallate (EGCG) repeatedly demonstrated benefits on cognitive performance.

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Mental Health

Mental Health

Matcha contains an amino acid called L-theanine, which has been shown to reduce physiological and psychological stresses. L-theanine also improves cognition and mood in a synergistic manner with caffeine, and promotes alpha wave production in the brain

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Cancer Prevention

Cancer Prevention

Matcha/green tea has for many centuries been regarded as an essential part of good health in Japan and China. Many believe it can help reduce the risk of cancer, and a growing body of evidence backs this up.

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Immunity

Immunity

A recent study in the journal Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences concluded that drinking matcha daily greatly enhanced the overall response of the immune system. The exceedingly high levels of antioxidants in matcha mainly take the form of polyphenols, catechins, and flavonoids, each of which aids the body’s defense in its daily struggles against free radicals that come from the pollution in your air, water and foods.

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