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Research Database

The only comprehensive database for clinical and medical research papers on the healthy benefits of matcha/green tea.

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The only comprehensive database for clinical and medical research papers on the healthy benefits of matcha/green tea.

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Cognitive Function

Cognitive Function

Matcha consumption leads to much higher intake of green tea phytochemicals compared to regular green tea. Previous research on caffeine, L-theanine, and epigallocatechin gallate (EGCG) repeatedly demonstrated benefits on cognitive performance.

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Heart Health

Heart Health

According to Harvard Medical School, “lowering your risk of cardiovascular disease may be as easy as drinking green tea. Studies suggest this light, aromatic tea may lower LDL cholesterol and triglycerides, which may be responsible for the tea's association with reduced risk of death from heart disease and stroke.”

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Mental Health

Mental Health

Matcha contains an amino acid called L-theanine, which has been shown to reduce physiological and psychological stresses. L-theanine also improves cognition and mood in a synergistic manner with caffeine, and promotes alpha wave production in the brain

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Cancer Prevention

Cancer Prevention

Matcha/green tea has for many centuries been regarded as an essential part of good health in Japan and China. Many believe it can help reduce the risk of cancer, and a growing body of evidence backs this up.

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Immunity

Immunity

A recent study in the journal Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences concluded that drinking matcha daily greatly enhanced the overall response of the immune system. The exceedingly high levels of antioxidants in matcha mainly take the form of polyphenols, catechins, and flavonoids, each of which aids the body’s defense in its daily struggles against free radicals that come from the pollution in your air, water and foods.

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Most Recent Research Articles

Green tea epigallocatechin-3-gallate attenuates Porphyromonas gingivalis-induced atherosclerosis

Author: Yu Cai , Tomoko Kurita-Ochiai , Tomomi Hashizume , Masafumi Yamamoto

The purpose of this study was to determine whether epigallocatechin-3-gallate (EGCG) ameliorates Porphyromonas gingivalis -induced atherosclerosis. EGCG is a polyphenol extract from green tea with health benefits and P. gingivalis is shown here to accelerate atheroma formation in a murine model. Apolipoprotein E knockout mice were administered EGCG or vehicle in drinking water; they were then fed high-fat diets and injected with P. gingivalis three times a week for 3 weeks. Mice were then killed at 15 weeks. Atherosclerotic plaques in the proximal aorta were determined by Oil Red O staining. Atherosclerosis risk factors in serum, liver or aorta were analysed using cytokine antibody arrays, enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay and real-time PCR. Atherosclerotic lesion areas of the aortic sinus caused by P. gingivalis infection decreased in EGCG-treated groups, wherein EGCG reduced the production of C-reactive protein, monocyte chemoattractant protein-1, and oxidized low-density lipoprotein (LDL), and slightly lowered LDL/very LDL cholesterol in P. gingivalis -challenged mice serum. Furthermore, the increase in CCL2, MMP-9, ICAM-1, HSP60, CD44, LOX-1, NOX-4, p22phox and iNOS gene expression levels in the aorta of P. gingivalis -challenged mice were reduced in EGCG-treated mice. However, HO-1 mRNA levels were elevated by EGCG treatment, suggesting that EGCG, as a natural substance, inhibits P. gingivalis -induced atherosclerosis through anti-inflammatory and antioxidative effects.

 

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Epigallocatechin-3-Gallate Inhibits Expression of Receptors for T Cell Regulatory Cytokines and Their Downstream Signaling in Mouse CD4+ T Cells

Author: Junpeng Wang, Munkyong Pae, Simin Nikbin Meydani and Dayong Wu

We previously showed a suppressive effect of epigallocatechin-3-gallate (EGCG) on T cell cycling and expansion as well as a paradoxical effect on IL-2 levels (upregulating) and IL-2 receptor (IL-2R)α expression (downregulating). Thus, in the current study, we tested the hypothesis that EGCG affects T cell responses via impairing the IL-2/IL-2R signaling. We found that EGCG inhibited anti-CD3/CD28-induced proliferation of naïve CD4+ T cells from C57BL/6 mice. EGCG increased accumulation of IL-2 but inhibited expression of IL-2R, including all its subunits [IL-2Rα, IL-2/IL-15Rβ, and common γ chain (γc)]. Using phosphorylation of STAT5 as a marker, we further found that EGCG suppressed IL-2R downstream signaling. Because IL-2R subunits IL-2/IL-15Rβ- and γc are shared with IL-15R and γc is shared with IL-7R, we suspected that EGCG might also influence the signaling of IL-15 and IL-7, the two key regulators in maintaining T cell homeostasis. Results showed that EGCG suppressed IL-15 and IL-7 signaling; further, EGCG not only inhibited the subunits in IL-15R and IL-7R shared with IL-2R, but also affected their proprietary α chains in a manner that aligns with an impaired signaling. Although IL-2, IL-15, and IL-7 have separate and distinctive roles in regulating T cells, all of them are critical for T cell survival, expansion, and differentiation. Thus, these findings indicate an involvement of T cell growth cytokines in EGCG-induced T cell suppression through downregulated expression of their receptors and downstream signaling. This implies a potential application in controlling dysregulated T cell functions such as those observed in autoimmune and inflammatory disorders.

 

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Total and Specific Polyphenol Intakes in Midlife Are Associated with Cognitive Function Measured 13 Years Later

Author: Emmanuelle Kesse-Guyot, Léopold Fezeu, Valentina A. Andreeva, Mathilde Touvier, Augustin Scalbert, Serge Hercberg and Pilar Galan

Polyphenols, and in particular flavonoids, are omnipresent plant-food components displaying biochemical properties possibly beneficial to brain health. We sought to evaluate the long-term association between total and class-specific polyphenol intake and cognitive performance. Polyphenol intake was estimated using the Phenol-Explorer database applied to at least six 24-h dietary records collected in 1994-1996 as part of the SU.VI.MAX (Supplémentation en Vitamines et Minéraux Antioxydants) study. The cognitive performance of 2574 middle-aged adults participating in the cohort was assessed in 2007-2009 using the following four neuropsychological tests: phonemic and semantic fluency, the RI-48 Cued Recall test, the Trail Making test, and Forward and Backward Digit Span. Inter-correlations among the test scores were estimated with principal component analysis. Associations between polyphenol intake and cognition were assessed by multivariate linear regression and ANCOVA. In multivariate models, high total polyphenol intake was associated with better language and verbal memory (P = 0.01) but not with executive functioning (P = 0.09). More specifically, intake of catechins (P = 0.001), theaflavins (P = 0.002), flavonols (P = 0.01), and hydroxybenzoic acids (P = 0.0004) was positively associated with language and verbal memory, especially with episodic memory assessed by the RI-48 test. In contrast, negative associations between scores on executive functioning and intake of dihydrochalcones (P = 0.01), catechins (P = 0.01), proanthocyanidins (P = 0.01), and flavonols (P = 0.01) were detected. High intake of specific polyphenols, including flavonoids and phenolic acids, may help to preserve verbal memory, which is a salient vulnerable domain in pathological brain aging. Further investigations are needed to clarify the observed negative associations regarding executive functioning.

 

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Green tea consumption and the risk of incident functional disability in elderly Japanese: the Ohsaki Cohort 2006 Study

Author: Yasutake Tomata, Masako Kakizaki, Naoki Nakaya, Toru Tsuboya, Toshimasa Sone, Shinichi Kuriyama, Atsushi Hozawa, and Ichiro Tsuji

Background: Previous studies have reported that green tea consumption is associated with a lower risk of diseases that cause functional disability, such as stroke, cognitive impairment, and osteoporosis. Although it is expected that green tea consumption would lower the risk of incident functional disability, this has never been investigated directly. Objective: The objective was to determine the association between green tea consumption and incident functional disability in elderly individuals. Design: We conducted a prospective cohort study in 13,988 Japanese individuals aged ≥65 y. Information on daily green tea consumption and other lifestyle factors was collected via questionnaire in 2006. Data on functional disability were retrieved from the public Long-term Care Insurance database, in which subjects were followed up for 3 y. We used Cox proportional hazards regression analysis to investigate the association between green tea consumption and functional disability. Results: The 3-y incidence of functional disability was 9.4% (1316 cases). The multiple-adjusted HR (95% CI) of incident functional disability was 0.90 (0.77, 1.06) among respondents who consumed 1–2 cups green tea/d, 0.75 (0.64, 0.88) for those who consumed 3–4 cups/d, and 0.67 (0.57, 0.79) for those who consumed ≥5 cups/d in comparison with those who consumed <1 cup/d (P-trend < 0.001). Conclusion: Green tea consumption is significantly associated with a lower risk of incident functional disability, even after adjustment for possible confounding factors.

 

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Perioperative Polyphenon E, a Green Tea Extract, Does Not Affect the Wound Complication Rate in Mice After Sham Laparotomy yet Has an Inhibitory Effect on Wound Healing

Author: Aviad Hoffman, Raymond Baxter, Abu Nasar, Thomas R. Gardner, Shantha Kumara, Carlos Cordon-Cardo, Aqeel Ahmed, Robert A. Newman, Oded Zmora, Richard L. Whelan

Introduction. Major surgery is associated with physiologic alterations that may promote tumor growth, and catechins in green tea may inhibit tumor growth. This study’s aim was to assess the impact of a green tea extract on laparotomy wound healing in mice. Methods. Mice were randomized to daily oral catechins solution (n = 25) or placebo (n = 20), underwent sham laparotomy after 10 days, and were sacrificed on postoperative day 7 or 21. The peak force and total energy required to rupture the abdominal wall wound, wound collagen content, and histology were assessed. Results. There were no wound complications in either group, and mean peak wound rupture forces and collagen concentration were similar. Mean energy was lower and more fibroblast proliferation was found in the treatment group on postoperative day 21. Conclusions. These results suggest that catechins has only mild clinically significant adverse effect on wound healing, and its perioperative use warrants further study.

 

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Improving the Polyphenol Content of Tea

Author: T. Tounekti, E. Joubert, I. Hernández & S. Munné-Bosch

Tea, prepared from the leaves of Camellia species, has one of the highest contents of flavonoids among common food and beverage products. Tea consumption has moved beyond its pleasant flavor and cultural significance since a number of health promoting properties have been ascribed to this widespread beverage (e.g., anticancer, antiobesity and hypotensive effects). The major bioactive compounds in tea are catechins (flavan-3-ols), a group of flavonoids that include, among others, (-)-epicatechin (EC), (-)-epigallocatechin (EGC), (-)-epicatechin-3-gallate (ECG), and (-)-epigallocatechin-3-gallate (EGCG). These compounds are also the precursors of theaflavins and thearubigins, oxidation products responsible for the taste and colour of certain tea types such as black tea. The composition of the tea leaf, and thus tea quality, is influenced by many pre-harvest factors such as the genetic make-up of the plant, region of production, horticultural and harvesting practices, and environmental conditions. Once harvested, processing, brewing, and storage conditions influence the phenolic composition and quality of tea infusions as well. In the present review we aim at outlining our current knowledge about means to increase the catechin content of teas, a cornerstone for improving the health-promoting properties of this beverage.

 

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Tea consumption and cardiovascular disease risk

Author: Lenore Arab, Faraz Khan, and Helen Lam

Background: The present analysis was conducted in response to inconsistent epidemiologic studies on the relation between consumption of tea and cardiovascular diseases. Objective: We undertook a literature review of the consistency and strength of the associations between tea and cardiovascular diseases on the basis of published observational studies and meta-analyses addressing tea or tea flavonoids and cardiovascular disease risk. Design: We performed a search in 3 databases for meta-analyses and compared them with studies they subsumed. We performed an additional search for subsequent studies to determine whether the conclusions were consistent. Results: Many epidemiologic studies have been conducted and summarized in 5 meta-analyses on either tea consumption or flavonoid consumption and cardiovascular disease or the subset of stroke. Heterogeneity of effect was seen when the outcome included all cardiovascular diseases. In the case of stroke, a consistent, dose-response association with tea consumption on both incidence and mortality was noted with RRs of 0.80 (95% CI: 0.65, 0.98) for flavonoids and 0.79 (95% CI: 0.73, 0.85) for tea when high and low intakes were compared or the addition of 3 cups/d was estimated. Conclusion: Thus, the strength of this evidence supports the hypothesis that tea consumption might lower the risk of stroke.

 

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Tea, flavonoids, and cardiovascular health: endothelial protection

Author: Davide Grassi, Giovambattista Desideri, Paolo Di Giosia, Martina De Feo, Emanuela Fellini, Paola Cheli, Livia Ferri, and Claudio Ferri

Several studies have suggested that tea consumption might protect against the development and progression of cardiovascular disease, one of the leading causes of morbidity and mortality worldwide. The endothelium plays a pivotal role in arterial homeostasis. Reduced nitric oxide (NO) bioavailability with endothelial dysfunction is considered the earliest step in the pathogenesis of atherosclerosis. Endothelial dysfunction has been considered an important and independent predictor of future development of cardiovascular risk and events. The association between brachial NO-dependent flow-mediated dilation (FMD) and cardiovascular disease risk has been investigated in several prospective studies, suggesting that FMD is inversely associated with future cardiovascular events. Dietary flavonoids and tea consumption have been described to improve endothelial function and FMD. A proposed mechanism by which dietary flavonoids could affect FMD is that they improve the bioactivity of the endothelium-derived vasodilator NO by enhancing NO synthesis or by decreasing superoxide-mediated NO breakdown. This could be of clinical relevance and may suggest a mechanistic explanation for the reduced risk of cardiovascular events and stroke observed among tea drinkers in the different studies. The purpose of this article is to provide an overview of the relation between tea consumption and cardiovascular disease, with a focus on clinical implications resulting from the beneficial effects of tea consumption on endothelial function.

 

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The Effect of Green Tea Extract on Fat Oxidation at Rest and during Exercise: Evidence of Efficacy and Proposed Mechanisms

Author: Adrian B. Hodgson, Rebecca K. Randell, and Asker E. Jeukendrup

Green tea is made from the leaves of the Camellia sinensis L plant, which is rich in polyphenol catechins and caffeine. There is increasing interest in the potential role of green tea extract (GTE) in fat metabolism and its influence on health and exercise performance. A number of studies have observed positive effects of GTE on fat metabolism at rest and during exercise, following both shorter and longer term intake. However, overall, the literature is inconclusive. The fact that not all studies observed effects may be related to differences in study designs, GTE bioavailability, and variation of the measurement (fat oxidation). In addition, the precise mechanisms of GTE in the human body that increase fat oxidation are unclear. The often-cited in vitro catechol-O-methyltransferase mechanism is used to explain the changes in substrate metabolism with little in vivo evidence to support it. Also, changes in expression of fat metabolism genes with longer term GTE intake have been implicated at rest and with exercise training, including the upregulation of fat metabolism enzyme gene expression in the skeletal muscle and downregulation of adipogenic genes in the liver. The exact molecular signaling that activates changes to fat metabolism gene expression is unclear but may be driven by PPAR-γ coactivator 1-α and PPARs. However, to date, evidence from human studies to support these adaptations is lacking. Clearly, more studies have to be performed to elucidate the effects of GTE on fat metabolism as well as improve our understanding of the underlying mechanisms.

 

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Effect of green tea on glucose control and insulin sensitivity: a meta-analysis of 17 randomized controlled trials

Author: Kai Liu, Rui Zhou, Bin Wang, Ka Chen, Lin-Ying Shi, Jun-Dong Zhu, and Man-Tian Mi

Background: The results of studies investigating the effect of green tea on glucose control and insulin sensitivity in humans are inconsistent. Objective: We aimed to quantitatively evaluate the effect of green tea on glucose control and insulin sensitivity. Design: We performed a strategic literature search of PubMed, EMBASE, and the Cochrane Library (updated to January 2013) for randomized controlled trials that evaluated the effects of green tea and green tea extract on glucose control and insulin sensitivity. Study quality was assessed by using the Jadad scale. Weighted mean differences were calculated for net changes in glycemic measures by using fixed-effects or random-effects models. We conducted prespecified subgroup and sensitivity analyses to explore potential heterogeneity. Meta-regression analyses were conducted to investigate dose effects of green tea on fasting glucose and insulin concentrations. Results: Seventeen trials comprising a total of 1133 subjects were included in the current meta-analysis. Green tea consumption significantly reduced the fasting glucose and hemoglobin A1c (Hb A1c) concentrations by −0.09 mmol/L (95% CI: −0.15, −0.03 mmol/L; P < 0.01) and −0.30% (95% CI: −0.37, −0.22%; P < 0.01), respectively. Further stratified analyses from high Jadad score studies showed that green tea significantly reduced fasting insulin concentrations (−1.16 μIU/mL; 95% CI: −1.91, −0.40 μIU/mL; P = 0.03). Conclusions: This meta-analysis suggested that green tea had favorable effects, ie, decreased fasting glucose and Hb A1c concentrations. Subgroup analyses showed a significant reduction in fasting insulin concentrations in trials with high Jadad scores.

 

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