Research Database

The only comprehensive database for clinical and medical research papers on the healthy benefits of matcha/green tea.

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The only comprehensive database for clinical and medical research papers on the healthy benefits of matcha/green tea.

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Cognitive Function

Cognitive Function

Matcha consumption leads to much higher intake of green tea phytochemicals compared to regular green tea. Previous research on caffeine, L-theanine, and epigallocatechin gallate (EGCG) repeatedly demonstrated benefits on cognitive performance.

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Heart Health

Heart Health

According to Harvard Medical School, “lowering your risk of cardiovascular disease may be as easy as drinking green tea. Studies suggest this light, aromatic tea may lower LDL cholesterol and triglycerides, which may be responsible for the tea's association with reduced risk of death from heart disease and stroke.”

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Mental Health

Mental Health

Matcha contains an amino acid called L-theanine, which has been shown to reduce physiological and psychological stresses. L-theanine also improves cognition and mood in a synergistic manner with caffeine, and promotes alpha wave production in the brain

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Cancer Prevention

Cancer Prevention

Matcha/green tea has for many centuries been regarded as an essential part of good health in Japan and China. Many believe it can help reduce the risk of cancer, and a growing body of evidence backs this up.

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Immunity

Immunity

A recent study in the journal Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences concluded that drinking matcha daily greatly enhanced the overall response of the immune system. The exceedingly high levels of antioxidants in matcha mainly take the form of polyphenols, catechins, and flavonoids, each of which aids the body’s defense in its daily struggles against free radicals that come from the pollution in your air, water and foods.

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Most Recent Research Articles

Epigallocatechin Gallate (EGCG), Influences a Murine WEHI-3 Leukemia Model In Vivo Through Enhancing Phagocytosis of Macrophages and Populations of T- and B-Cells

Author: Huang AC, Cheng HY, Lin TS, Chen WH, Lin JH, Lin JJ, Lu CC, Chiang JH, Hsu SC, Wu PP, Huang YP, Chung JG

Epigallocatechin gallate (EGCG) is the major polyphenol in green tea, and has been reported to have anticancer effects on many types of cancer cells. However, there is no report to show its effects on the immune response in a murine leukemia mouse model. Thus, in the present study, we investigated the effects of EGCG on the immune responses of murine WEHI-3 leukemia cells in vivo. WEHI-3 cells were intraperitoneally injected into normal BALB/c mice to establish leukemic BALB/c mice, which were then oral-treated with or without EGCG at 5, 20 and 40 mg/kg for two weeks. The results indicated that EGCG did not change the weight of the animals, nor the liver or spleen when compared to vehicle (olive oil) -treated groups. Furthermore, EGCG increased the percentage of cluster of differentiation 3 (CD3) (T-cell), cluster of differentiation 19 (CD19) (B-cell) and Macrophage-3 antigen (Mac-3) (macrophage) but reduced the percentage of CD11b (monocyte) cell surface markers in EGCG-treated groups as compared with the untreated leukemia group. EGCG promoted the phagocytosis of macrophages from 5 mg/kg treatment and promoted natural killer cell activity at 40 mg/kg, increased T-cell proliferation at 40 mg/kg but promoted B-cell proliferation at all three doses. Based on these observations, it appears that EGCG might exhibit an immune response in the murine WEHI-3 cell line-induced leukemia in vivo.

 

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Peracetylated (−)-epigallocatechin-3-gallate (AcEGCG) potently prevents skin carcinogenesis by suppressing the PKD1-dependent signaling pathway in CD34 + skin stem cells and skin tumors

Peracetylated (−)-epigallocatechin-3-gallate (AcEGCG) potently prevents skin carcinogenesis by suppressing the PKD1-dependent signaling pathway in CD34 + skin stem cells and skin tumors

Author: Yi-Shiou Chiou, Shengmin Sang, Kuang-Hung Cheng, Chi-Tang Ho, Ying-Jan Wang and Min-Hsiung Pan

During the process of skin tumor promotion, expression of the cutaneous cancer stem cell (CSC) marker CD34 + is required for stem cell activation and tumor formation. A previous study has shown that activation of protein kinase D1 (PKD1) is involved in epidermal tumor promotion; however, the signals that regulate CSCs in skin carcinogenesis have not been characterized. This study was designed to investigate the chemopreventive potential of peracetylated (−)-epigallocatechin-3-gallate (AcEGCG) on 7,12-dimethylbenz[a]-anthracene (DMBA)-initiated and 12- O -tetradecanoylphorbol-13-acetate (TPA)-promoted skin tumorigenesis in ICR mice and to elucidate the possible mechanisms involved in the inhibitory action of PKD1 on CSCs. We demonstrated that topical application of AcEGCG before TPA treatment can be more effective than EGCG in reducing DMBA/TPA-induced tumor incidence and multiplicity. Notably, AcEGCG not only inhibited the expression of p53, p21, c-Myc, cyclin B, p-CDK1 and Cdc25A but also restored the activation of extracellular signal-regulated kinase 1/2 (ERK1/2), which decreased DMBA/TPA-induced increases in tumor proliferation and mitotic index. To clarify the role of PKD1 in cell proliferation and tumorigenesis, we studied the expression and activation of PKD1 in CD34 + skin stem cells and skin tumors. We found that PKD1 was strongly expressed in CD34 + cells and that pretreatment with AcEGCG markedly inhibited PKD1 activation and CD34 + expression. More importantly, pretreatment with AcEGCG remarkably suppressed nuclear factor-kappaB, cyclic adenosine 3′,5′-monophosphate-responsive element-binding protein (CREB) and CCAAT-enhancer-binding protein (C/EBPs) activation by inhibiting the phosphorylation of c-Jun-N-terminal kinase 1/2, p38 and phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K)/Akt and by attenuating downstream target gene expression, including inducible nitric oxide synthase, cyclooxygenase-2, ornithine decarboxylase and vascular endothelial growth factor. Moreover, this is the first study to demonstrate that AcEGCG is a CD34 + and PKD1 inhibitor in the multistage mouse skin carcinogenesis model. Overall, our results powerfully suggest that AcEGCG could be developed into a novel chemopreventive agent and that PKD1 may be a preventive and therapeutic target for skin cancer in clinical settings.

 

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Does tea prevent cancer? Evidence from laboratory and human intervention studies

Author: Joshua D Lambert

Tea (Camellia sinensis) is a widely consumed beverage and has been extensively studied for its cancer-preventive activity. Both the polyphenolic constituents as well as the caffeine in tea have been implicated as potential cancer-preventive compounds; the relative importance seems to depend on the cancer type. Green tea and the green tea catechin have been shown to inhibit tumorigenesis at a number of organ sites and to be effective when administered either during the initiation or postinitiation phases of carcinogenesis. Black tea, although not as well studied as green tea, has also shown cancer-preventive effects in laboratory models. A number of potential mechanisms have been proposed to account for the cancer-preventive effects of tea, including modulation of phase II metabolism, alterations in redox environment, inhibition of growth factor signaling, and others. In addition to the laboratory studies, there is a growing body of human intervention studies suggesting that tea can slow cancer progression and modify biomarkers relevant to carcinogenesis. Although available data are promising, many questions remain with regard to the dose-response relations of tea constituents in various models, the primary mechanisms of action, and the potential for combination chemoprevention strategies that involve tea as well as other dietary or pharmaceutical agents. The present review examines the available data from laboratory animal and human intervention studies on tea and cancer prevention. These data were evaluated, and areas for further research are identified.

 

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Epidemiologic Evidence of a Relationship between Tea, Coffee, or Caffeine Consumption and Cognitive Decline

Author: Lenore Arab, Faraz Khan, and Helen Lam

A systematic literature review of human studies relating caffeine or caffeine-rich beverages to cognitive decline reveals only 6 studies that have collected and analyzed cognition data in a prospective fashion that enables study of decline across the spectrum of cognition. These 6 studies, in general, evaluate cognitive function using the Mini Mental State Exam and base their beverage data on FFQs. Studies included in our review differed in their source populations, duration of study, and most dramatically in how their analyses were done, disallowing direct quantitative comparisons of their effect estimates. Only one of the studies reported on all 3 exposures, coffee, tea, and caffeine, making comparisons of findings across studies more difficult. However, in general, it can be stated that for all studies of tea and most studies of coffee and caffeine, the estimates of cognitive decline were lower among consumers, although there is a lack of a distinct dose response. Only a few measures showed a quantitative significance and, interestingly, studies indicate a stronger effect among women than men.

 

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Cellular targets for the beneficial actions of tea polyphenols

Author: Mario Lorenz

Green and black teas contain different biologically active polyphenolic compounds that might offer protection against a variety of human diseases. Although promising experimental and clinical data have shown protective effects, limited information is available on how these beneficial effects of tea polyphenols are mediated at the cellular level. Evidence is accumulating that catechins in green tea as well as theaflavins and thearubigins from black tea are the substances responsible for the physiologic effects of tea in vitro. The green tea catechin epigallocatechin-3-gallate (EGCG) is generally considered to be the biologically most active compound in vitro. The changes in the activities of various protein kinases, growth factors, and transcription factors represent a common mechanism involved in cellular effects of tea polyphenols. In addition to modification of intracellular signaling by activation of cellular receptors, it was shown that, at least for EGCG, tea polyphenols can enter the cells and directly interact with their molecular targets within cells. There, they frequently result in opposite effects in primary compared with tumor cells. Although tea polyphenols were long regarded as antioxidants, research in recent years has uncovered their prooxidant properties. The use of high nonphysiologic concentrations in many cell culture studies raises questions about the biological relevance of the observed effects for the in vivo situation. Efforts to attribute functional effects in vivo to specific molecular targets at the cellular level are still ongoing.

 

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Human studies on the absorption, distribution, metabolism, and excretion of tea polyphenols

Author: Michael N Clifford, Justin JJ van der Hooft, and Alan Crozier

Recent research on the bioavailability of flavan-3-ols after ingestion of green tea by humans is reviewed. Glucuronide, sulfate, and methyl metabolites of (epi)catechin and (epi)gallocatechin glucuronide reach peak nanomolar per liter plasma concentrations 1.6-2.3 h after intake, indicating absorption in the small intestine. The concentrations then decline, and only trace amounts remain 8 h after ingestion. Urinary excretion of metabolites over a 24-h period after green tea consumption corresponded to 28.5% of the ingested (epi)catechin and 11.4% of (epi)gallocatechin, suggesting higher absorption than that of most other flavonoids. The fate of (-)-epicatechin-3-O-gallate, the main flavan-3-ol in green tea, is unclear because it appears unmetabolized in low concentrations in plasma but is not excreted in urine. Possible enterohepatic recirculation of flavan-3-ols is discussed along with the impact of dose and other food components on flavan-3-ol bioavailability. Approximately two-thirds of the ingested flavan-3-ols pass from the small to the large intestine where the action of the microbiota results in their conversion to C-6-C-5 phenylvalerolactones and phenylvaleric acids, which undergo side-chain shortening to produce C-6-C-1 phenolic and aromatic acids that enter the bloodstream and are excreted in urine in amounts equivalent to 36% of flavan-3-ol intake. Some of these colon-derived catabolites may have a role in vivo in the potential protective effects of tea consumption. Although black tea, which contains theaflavins and thearubigins, is widely consumed in the Western world, there is surprisingly little research on the absorption and metabolism of these compounds after ingestion and their potential impact on health.

 

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Green Tea Polyphenol Epigallocatechin 3-Gallate, Contributes to the Degradation of DNMT3A and HDAC3 in HCT 116 Human Colon Cancer Cells

Author: Vondina R. Moseley, Jay Morris, Rebecca W. Knackstedt and Michael J. Wargovich

Background: Colon cancer is still the second leading cause of cancer deaths in the United States. Epigenetic gene silencing involving DNA methyltransferases (DNMTs) and histone deacetylases (HDACs) plays an important role in the progression of colon cancer. Materials and Methods: In the present study we found that the sensitivity of colon cancer cells to methylation plays a role in its response to alternative therapy involving the green tea polyphenol, epigallocatechin 3-gallate. HDAC and DNMT protein expression were reduced when methylation-sensitive HCT 116 human colon cancer cells was treated with EGCG, but was relatively stable in the HT-29 cell line. This decrease in expression may be partially explained by our finding that DNMT3A and HDAC3 are degraded in the methylation-sensitive colon cancer cells in part by inhibiting their association with the E3 ubiquitin ligase, UHRF1. Conclusion: These findings provide a rationale for the development of a targeted therapy for methylation-sensitive colon cancer that can include EGCG in combination with other DNMT and HDAC inhibitors.

 

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(−)-Epigallocatechin-3-gallate, a potential inhibitor to human dicarbonyl/L-xylulose reductase

(−)-Epigallocatechin-3-gallate, a potential inhibitor to human dicarbonyl/L-xylulose reductase

Author: Xiao-Hui Hu, Li-Ya Ding, Wei-Xue Huang, Xian-Mei Yang, Fang Xie, Min Xu and Long Yu

Dicarbonyl/L-xylulose reductase (DCXR), mainly catalysing the reduction of α-dicarbonyl compounds and L-xylulose, belongs to the short-chain dehydrogenase/reductase superfamily. Its enzyme activity can be inhibited by short-chain fatty acids. In this study, a novel DCXR inhibitor named (−)-epigallocatechin-3-gallate (EGCG) was reported. First, we overexpressed recombinant human DCXR in Escherichia coli, purified the enzyme by affinity chromatography and measured its activity. The inhibition effects of EGCG and its analogues on DCXR were determined subsequently, and EGCG showed the strongest inhibition with 50% inhibition concentration value of 78.8 μM. The surface plasmon resonance analysis also indicated that the equilibrium dissociation constant (KD) reached to 7.11 × 10−8 M, which implied a high affinity between EGCG and DCXR. From enzyme kinetic analysis, EGCG acted as a mixed inhibitor against its forward and reverse substrates and the coenzyme, reduced nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate (NADPH). However, the inhibition is pH dependent. The molecular docking finally showed that EGCG formed several hydrogen bonds with the Thr190 residue of DCXR, and the model was further verified by site-directed mutagenesis. Therefore, EGCG is a potential inhibitor to human DCXR.

 

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(-)-Epigallocatechin-3-gallate inhibition of Epstein–Barr virus spontaneous lytic infection involves ERK1/2 and PI3-K/Akt signaling in EBV-positive cells

Author: Sufang Liu, Hongde Li, Lin Chen, Lifang Yang, Lili Li, Yongguan Tao, Wei Li, Zijian Li, Haidan Liu, Min Tang, Ann M. Bode, Zigang Dong and Ya Cao

Epstein–Barr virus (EBV) reactivation into the lytic cycle plays certain roles in the development of EBV-associated diseases, including nasopharyngeal carcinoma and lymphoma. In this study, we investigated the effects of the tea polyphenol (-)-epigallocatechin-3-gallate (EGCG) on EBV spontaneous lytic infection and the mechanism(s) involved in EBV-positive cells. We found that EGCG could effectively inhibit the constitutive lytic infection of EBV at the DNA, gene transcription and protein levels by decreasing the phosphorylation and activation of extracellular signal-regulated kinase 1/2 (ERK1/2) and Akt. By using cellular signaling pathway-specific inhibitors, we also explored the signaling mechanisms underlying the inhibitory effects of EGCG on EBV spontaneous lytic infection in cell models. Results show that specific inhibitors of Mitogen-Activated Protein Kinase Kinase (MEK) (PD98059) and phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase [PI3-K (LY294002)] markedly downregulated gene transcription and expression of BZLF1 and BMRF1 indicating that the MEK/ERK1/2 and PI3-K/Akt pathways are involved in the EBV spontaneous lytic cycle cascade. Therefore, one of the mechanisms by which EGCG inhibits EBV spontaneous lytic infection appears to involve the suppression of the activation of MEK/ERK1/2 and PI3-K/Akt signaling.

 

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