Research Database

The only comprehensive database for clinical and medical research papers on the healthy benefits of matcha/green tea.

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The only comprehensive database for clinical and medical research papers on the healthy benefits of matcha/green tea.

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Cognitive Function

Cognitive Function

Matcha consumption leads to much higher intake of green tea phytochemicals compared to regular green tea. Previous research on caffeine, L-theanine, and epigallocatechin gallate (EGCG) repeatedly demonstrated benefits on cognitive performance.

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Heart Health

Heart Health

According to Harvard Medical School, “lowering your risk of cardiovascular disease may be as easy as drinking green tea. Studies suggest this light, aromatic tea may lower LDL cholesterol and triglycerides, which may be responsible for the tea's association with reduced risk of death from heart disease and stroke.”

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Mental Health

Mental Health

Matcha contains an amino acid called L-theanine, which has been shown to reduce physiological and psychological stresses. L-theanine also improves cognition and mood in a synergistic manner with caffeine, and promotes alpha wave production in the brain

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Cancer Prevention

Cancer Prevention

Matcha/green tea has for many centuries been regarded as an essential part of good health in Japan and China. Many believe it can help reduce the risk of cancer, and a growing body of evidence backs this up.

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Immunity

Immunity

A recent study in the journal Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences concluded that drinking matcha daily greatly enhanced the overall response of the immune system. The exceedingly high levels of antioxidants in matcha mainly take the form of polyphenols, catechins, and flavonoids, each of which aids the body’s defense in its daily struggles against free radicals that come from the pollution in your air, water and foods.

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Most Recent Research Articles

Determination of total polyphenols content in green tea using FT-NIR spectroscopy and different PLS algorithms

Author: Quansheng Chen and Jiewen Zhao and Muhua Liu and Jianrong Cai and Jianhua Liu

This paper attempted the feasibility to determine content total polyphenols content in green tea with near infrared (NIR) spectroscopy coupled with an appropriate multivariate calibration method. Partial least squares (PLS), interval PLS (iPLS) and synergy interval PLS (siPLS) algorithms were performed comparatively to calibrate regression model. The number of PLS components and the number of intervals were optimized according to root mean square error of cross-validation (RMSECV) in calibration set. The performance of the final model was evaluated according to root mean square error of prediction (RMSEP) and correlation coefficient (R) in prediction set. Experimental results showed that the performance of siPLS model is the best in contrast to PLS and iPLS. The optimal model was achieved with R = 0.9583 and RMSEP = 0.7327 in prediction set. This study demonstrated that NIR spectroscopy with siPLS algorithm could be used successfully to analysis of total polyphenols content in green tea, and revealed superiority of siPLS algorithm in contrast with other multivariate calibration methods.

 

 

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Quenching of α,β-unsaturated aldehydes by green tea polyphenols: HPLC–ESI–MS/MS studies

Author: Giangiacomo Beretta and Sandra Furlanetto and Luca Regazzoni and Marina Zarrella and Roberto Maffei Facino

The aim of this work was to investigate in vitro the quenching activity of green tea polyphenols against α,β-unsaturated aldehyde, using 4-hydroxy-nonenal (HNE) as prototype and HPLC–ESI–MS/MS techniques. HNE is the most abundant and genotoxic product of oxidation of dietary polyunsaturated fatty acids, and is believed to be involved in the early stage of colorectal carcinogenesis on account of its genotoxic potential. Both epigallocatechin gallate (EGCG, 1.0–3.5 mM), the main constituent of green tea polyphenols, and a green tea aqueous extract are able to quench HNE (50 μM) in colorectal physiomimetic conditions (10 mM phosphate buffer, pH 8.0, 37 °C), giving rise to the formation of six diastereomeric covalent adducts at the ring A of EGCG, as indicated by their ESI–MS/MS fragmentation pathways. The specificity of the adduction positions was explained by 1H NMR experiments. HNE quenching is pH-dependent and maximum at pH 8.0. ESI–MS analysis showed no formation of 4-hydroxy-2,3-epoxy-nonanal, or adduction of the epoxide to EGCG. This implies that too little hydrogen peroxide (1 mM, 24 h incubation, FOX-2 method) develops from auto-oxidation of EGCG in our aerobic experimental conditions to oxidize HNE to its corresponding epoxide, so this mechanism is not responsible for the compound's disappearance. EGCG and green tea extract also quenched acrolein, another genotoxic α,β-unsaturated aldehyde, giving one predominant adduct and minor isobaric species, probably due the adduction of acrolein at different positions of the EGCG ring A. These results suggest that EGCG and green tea extract, beside the proposed mechanisms of chemoprevention that target multiple cell-signaling pathways that control cell proliferation and apoptosis in cancer cells, can also prevent protein carbonylation in the tumor tissue environment, depending on the pH of the medium surrounding the tissue, the type of tumor, the stage of dysregulation of lipid peroxidation and, finally, the stage of carcinoma development.

 

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Persistence of acetamiprid in tea and its transfer from made tea to infusion

Author: Monika Gupta and Adarsh Shanker

Acetamiprid, a new-generation, highly active neonicotinoid insecticide has been used to control mites and insect pests. In the present study, the disappearance trend of acetamiprid residue in tea under field conditions was studied at two dosages for two seasons (dry and wet), and transfer of residues from made tea to infusion was also determined. Acetamiprid dissipation rate was found to be faster in the wet season. Half-life of acetamprid was found to be 1.82–2.33 days in green tea shoots and 1.84–2.25 days in made tea for both dry and wet seasons. The percent transfer of acetamiprid residues from made tea to infusion was 36.84–50.00%; however, 31.11–44.40% of the residues remained stuck to the spent leaves during both the dry and wet seasons. On the basis of transfer of residues from made tea to infusion, a waiting period of 15 days for tea plucking after pesticide application at recommended dose may be suggested.

 

 

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Aldehyde formation in frozen mackerel (Scomber scombrus) in the presence and absence of instant green tea

Author: Rabia Alghazeer and Suhur Saeed and Nazlin K. Howell

The effect of frozen storage on lipid peroxidation in Atlantic mackerel (Scomber scombrus) stored for up to 26 weeks at −10 or −80 °C (control), with and without green tea antioxidants, was investigated. Hydroperoxides (PV) and aldehydes (TBARS) were measured by HPLC and LC–MS and hexanal by GC. There was an increase in peroxide value which was associated with an increase in aldehydes, followed by hexanal increase with storage time and at a higher temperature of −10 °C compared with samples stored at −80 °C. Although TBARS is a common assay used to follow malondialdehyde formation, other aldehyde products can also react with thiobarbituric acid to give the red chromogen. Analysis of aldehyde–TBA adducts by LC–MS confirmed the presence of malondialdehyde and, in particular, we report the production of gluteraldehyde for the first time in stored frozen fish. Green tea (at 250 ppm) substantially slowed down the oxidation process, whereas at 500 ppm it was less effective.

 

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Effect of green tea extract on advanced glycation and cross-linking of tail tendon collagen in streptozotocin induced diabetic rats

Author: Pon Velayutham Anandh Babu and Kuruvimalai Ekambaram Sabitha and Chennam Srinivasulu Shyamaladevi

Diabetes leads to modification of collagen such as advanced glycation and cross-linking which play an important role in the pathogenesis of diabetes mellitus. We have investigated the effect of green tea on modification of collagen in streptozotocin (60 mg/kg body weight) induced diabetic rats. To investigate the therapeutic effect of green tea, treatment was begun six weeks after the onset of diabetes and green tea extract (300 mg/kg body weight) was given orally for 4 weeks. The collagen content, extent of advanced glycation, advanced glycation end products (AGE) and cross-linking of tail tendon collagen were investigated. Green tea reduced the tail tendon collagen content which increased in diabetic rats. Accelerated advanced glycation and AGE in diabetic animals, as detected by Ehrlich’s-positive material and collagen linked fluorescence respectively were reduced significantly by green tea. The solubility of tail tendon collagen decreased significantly in diabetic rats indicating a remarkable increase in the cross-linking, whereas green tea increases the solubility of collagen in diabetic rats. The present study reveals that green tea is effective in reducing the modification of tail tendon collagen in diabetic rats. Thus green tea may have a therapeutic effect in the treatment of glycation induced complications of diabetes.

 

 

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Association between soy and green tea (Camellia sinensis) diminishes hypercholesterolemia and increases total plasma antioxidant potential in dyslipidemic subjects

Author: Márcia Bertipaglia de Santana and Marcos Gontijo Mandarino and Jefferson Rosa Cardoso and Isaías Dichi and Jane Bandeira Dichi and Alissana Ester Iakmiu Camargo and Bruno Alberto Fabris and Ricardo José Rodrigues and Elis Carolina Souza Fatel and Suzana Lucy Nixdorf and Andréa Name Colado Simão and Rubens Cecchini and Décio Sabbatini Barbosa

Objective To evaluate the hypolipemic and antioxidant effects of soy and green tea alone and/or in association in dyslipidemic subjects. Methods One hundred dyslipidemic individuals were allocated into four groups. The soy group ingested 50 g of soy (kinako) daily, and the green tea group ingested 3 g of green tea in 500 mL of water per day. A third group ingested 50 g of soy and 3 g of green tea daily, and the control group had a hypocholesterolemic diet. Evaluations were performed at baseline and after 45 and 90 d. Plasma levels of total cholesterol, high-density lipoprotein, and triacylglycerols were evaluated by automated methods. Low-density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol was calculated using the Friedewald equation. LDL was isolated by ultracentrifugation. Total plasma antioxidant capacity and plasma levels of total lipid hydroperoxides and those linked to LDL were evaluated by chemiluminescence. The results were expressed as median values and their 25th to 75th percentiles, with a 5% level of significance. Results No significant difference occurred in LDL, high-density lipoprotein cholesterol, and triacylglycerol levels across groups. However, a statistically significant difference in total cholesterol occurred within the soy/green tea group 45 and 90 d after intervention. No statistically significant difference occurred in plasma levels of lipid hydroperoxides or those linked to LDL in any of the groups studied. All the groups that used soy and/or green tea presented increased total plasma antioxidant potential. Conclusion Soy and green tea, alone or in combination, increased the total antioxidant potential of hypercholesterolemic patients, whereas only the combination decreased total cholesterol levels.

 

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Effect of PEF on microbial inactivation and physical–chemical properties of green tea extracts

Author: Wei Zhao and Ruijin Yang and Rongrong Lu and Mo Wang and Ping Qian and Wade Yang

The effects of pulsed electric fields (PEF) on (1) the inactivation of Escherichia coli and Staphylococus aureus in green tea beverage, and (2) the color, green tea polyphenols (GTP) content, and total free amino acids in green tea extracts were investigated. Green tea extract samples inoculated with E. coli and S. aureus were treated using a bench-scale PEF system at electric field strengths of 18.1, 27.4, and 38.4 kV/cm and total treatment times of 40, 80, 120, 160 and 200 μs. The inactivation of E. coli and S. aureus by PEF treatment at 38.4 kV/cm for 160 and 200 μs reached 5.6 and 4.9 log reductions, respectively. PEF processing caused no considerable changes in color, GTP and total free amino acids. The storage tests at 4 °C showed that synergistic effect of low temperature storage and the antimicrobial functionality of GTP resulted in a considerable reduction in the microoganisms of the PEF-treated tea beverage, extending its shelf-life to over 6 months at 4 °C.

 

 

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Modulation of Nrf2-mediated antioxidant and detoxifying enzyme induction by the green tea polyphenol EGCG

Author: Hye-Kyung Na and Young-Joon Surh

Frequent consumption of green tea, one of the most popular and widely consumed beverages, has been known to protect against development of various cancers according to numerous experimental and several population-based studies. Molecular mechanisms underlying chemopreventive effects exerted by green tea and its components have been extensively investigated. (−)-Epigallocatechin-3-gallate (EGCG), a major green tea polyphenol, has been shown to induce expression of glutathione S-transferase, glutathione peroxidase, glutamate cysteine ligase, hemeoxygenase-1, etc. that are involved in the elimination or inactivation of reactive oxygen species and electrophiles implicated in multi-stage carcinogenesis. The redox-sensitive transcription factor, nuclear factor erythroid 2 p45 (NF-E2)-related factor (Nrf2) plays a key role in regulating induction of phase II detoxifying or antioxidant enzymes. Thus, activation of Nrf2 is considered to be an important molecular target of many chemopreventive and chemoprotective agents. This review summarizes the molecular basis of chemoprevention and cytoprotection afforded by EGCG with emphasis on its ability to modulate Nrf2-mediated cellular events.

 

 

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Extract of green tea leaves partially attenuates streptozotocin-induced changes in antioxidant status and gastrointestinal functioning in rats

Author: Jerzy Juśkiewicz and Zenon Zduńczyk and Adam Jurgoński and Łucja Brzuzan and Irena Godycka-Kłos and Ewa Żary-Sikorska

Rats with severe streptozotocin (STZ)-induced diabetes were subjected to dietary green tea extract supplementation at 2 doses (0.01% and 0.2%; GTL and GTH groups, respectively) to evaluate their effects on antioxidant, gastrointestinal, and renal parameters of experimental animals. The lower dietary supplementation reflects daily consumption of 3 cups of green tea for an average adult weighing 70 kg. Supplementation of a diet with green tea extract had no influence on elevated food intake, body weight loss, increased glucose concentration, or declined antioxidant capacity of water-soluble substances in plasma in the diabetic rats. In cases of intestinal maltase activity, attenuation of liver and kidney hypertrophy, triacylglycerol concentration, and aspartate aminotransferase activity in the serum, both dietary treatments normalized metabolic disorders caused by STZ injection to a similar extent. Unlike the GTL group, the GTH treatment significantly ameliorated development of diabetes-induced abnormal values for small intestinal saccharase and lactase activities, renal microalbuminuria, thiobarbituric acid-reactive substance content in kidney tissue, as well as total antioxidant status in the serum of rats. The GTH group was also characterized by higher antioxidant capacity of lipid-soluble substances in plasma and superoxide dismutase activity in the serum. Although the higher dose of green tea extract did not completely protect against STZ-induced hyperglycemia and oxidative stress in experimental rats, this study suggests that green tea extract ingested at high amounts may prove to be a useful therapeutic option in the reversal of diabetic dysfunction.

 

 

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Effectiveness of green tea on weight reduction in obese Thais: A randomized, controlled trial

Author: Paradee Auvichayapat and Montira Prapochanung and Oratai Tunkamnerdthai and Bung-orn Sripanidkulchai and Narong Auvichayapat and Bandit Thinkhamrop and Soontorn Kunhasura and Srisuda Wongpratoom and Supat Sinawat and Pranithi Hongprapas

This study was undertaken to investigate the effects of green tea on weight reduction in obese Thais. A randomized, controlled trial involving 60 obese subjects (body mass index, BMI > 25kg/m2) was conducted. All subjects consumed a Thai diet containing 3 meals (8373.6kJ/day) for 12weeks, prepared by the Nutritional Unit at Srinagarind Hospital. The diet contained 65% carbohydrates, 15% protein, and 20% fat. Body weight, BMI, body composition, resting energy expenditure, and substrate oxidation were measured at baseline, and during weeks 4, 8, and 12 of the study. Serum levels of leptin and urine VMA were measured at baseline and during the 12th week. Differences over time and between the treatments (green tea or placebo) over time were determined using two-factor ANOVA with repeated measures. In comparing the two groups, differences in weight loss were 2.70, 5.10, and 3.3kg during the 4th, 8th, and 12th weeks of the study, respectively. At the 8th and 12th weeks of the study, body weight loss was significantly different (P < 0.05). At the 8th week, the difference in resting energy expenditure was 183.38kJ/day (P < 0.001), the difference in the respiratory quotient was 0.02 (P < 0.05), and no significant differences existed in satiety score, food intake, or physical activity. Urine VMA was significantly different in the 12th week of the study (P < 0.05). We conclude that green tea can reduce body weight in obese Thai subjects by increasing energy expenditure and fat oxidation.

 

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